Philosophy

Taoist Stories Taoists often use anecdotes to describe and present lessons of life. For example, The Missing Axe teaches that people see only what they want to see. Another important Taoist story, The Lost Horse, proves the falseness of first impressions. Similarly, Pearl Buck expresses this idea of false impressions in The Good Earth. When Wang Lung makes judgments about other characters throughout the novel, Buck shows how one’s first impressions of others can be wrong. One of Wang Lung’s firs
Tess Of D\'Urbervilles If written today, Tess of the d\'urbervilles by Thomas Hardy may have been called Just Call Me Job or Tess: Victim of Fate. Throughout this often bleak novel, the reader is forced by Tess\'s circumstance to sympathize with the heroine (for lack of a better term) as life deals her blow after horrifying blow. One of the reasons that the reader is able to do so may be the fatalistic approach Hardy has taken with the life of the main character. Hardy writes Tess as a victim of
Their Eyes Were Watching God Neale Hurston\'s work provides the African-American community with a one of the first literary symbols of racial health - a sense of black people as complete, complex, undiminished human beings. Appropriately, Hurston\'s Their Eyes Were Watching God, published in 1937, provides an enlightening look at the journey of one of these undiminished human beings, Janie Crawford. Janie\'s story - based on principles of self-exploration, self-empowerment, and self-liberation -
Time Machine by Herbert Wells Time travel. An idea that has fascinated mankind for all eternity. The shear idea of voyaging through the fabric of time is both an intriguing and exhilarating thought. Throughout time, many author\'s have closely predicted the future through their novels, and who\'s to say H.G. Wells wont follow the proverbial footsteps of these authors with The Time Machine? Is the idea to far fetched? The time traveler in the story didn\'t think so, all though others didn\'t agre
Transcendentalism In Literature Transcendentalism is the belief that matters of ultimate reality transcend, or go beyond, human experience. Transcendentalist thinking began during the American Renaissance with writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. However transcendental thinking did not begin with Thoreau and Emerson, but as Emerson called it, “it is the very oldest of thoughts cast into the mold of these new times.” Transcendentalism is based on the ancient philosophy of Ide
Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is the belief that matters of ultimate reality transcend, or go beyond, human experience. Transcendentalist thinking began during the American Renaissance with writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. However transcendental thinking did not begin with Thoreau and Emerson, but as Emerson called it, “it is the very oldest of thoughts cast into the mold of these new times.” Transcendentalism is based on the ancient philosophy of Idealism, which o
Virgil Influence On Dante Dante Alighieri was born in Florence, Italy in 1265. In his life, he created two major books of poetry: Vita Nuova and The Comedy. The Comedy, which was later renamed The Divine Comedy, is an epic poem broken down into three books in each of which Dante recounts his travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven. The first book of The Comedy, Dante\'s Inferno, is an especially creative narrative. He narrates his descent and observation of Hell through the various circles a
Walden By Henry Thoreau Analysis In Henry David Thoreau’s infamous novel “Walden”, we are shown endless paradoxes that stem from the author’s deep and insightful views into nature’s universal connections with the human race. Thoreau makes himself a quest of finding the meaning to our existence by investigating nature from different perspectives that our preoccupied society constantly overlooks. Two of these perspectives are of viewing nature from a mountaintop or panoramic view and the other bei
Water Works By Doctrorow And In Cold Blood By Capote In E.L Doctrorow’s novel, The Waterworks, Mr McIlvaine suggests that some stories were, “not... reportorially possible... that there are limits to words in a newspaper” (page 201). The character Mr McIlvaine like Truman Capote the author of In Cold Blood are both journalists who have found stories to which they feel newsprint, in itself would not have brought justice. Therefore to what extent has truth in narration, and truth through journalis
Watership Down By Richard Adams The novel Watership Down by Richard Adams, like Edmund Spencer’s The Faerie Queene, is an allegory. Watership Down also embodies many romantic ideas. Fiver, a rabbit who sees visions from Frith, represents the turn toward imagination that occurred in the Romantic period. The rabbits in the novel also value freedom and rebellion against tyranny, two important Romantic ideas. Many of the rabbits that left the Sandleford warren were unhappy with authority there, and
Will To Power By Friedrich Nietzsche The existential philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed that humanity nedded to be overcome. He viewed humans as weak creatures and slaves to the Christian religion. In The Will to Power, Nietzsche asserts the poer of the overman-- a creature beyond Christian good and evil-- to replace the passive man. To understand the book, it is first necessary to understand what Nietzsche means by \'The Will to Power\'. Denneson describes this as a \'psychological presup
Yellow Wall Paper And Women Role In the nineteenth century, women in literature were often portrayed as submissive to men. Literature of the period often characterized women as oppressed by society, as well as by the male influences in their lives. The Yellow Wallpaper presents the tragic story of a woman\'s descent into depression and madness. Gilman once wrote "Women\'s subordination will only end when women lead the struggle for their own autonomy, thereby freeing man as well as themselves, b
Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl is not a new phenomenon, and the battle between environmentalists and developers is well-known. But perhaps the issue is not that the land is being utterly stripped of life and replaced by cookie cutter houses or factories, which has been a controversy for decades. Perhaps the fighting has exposed a deeper problem: the American acceptance of a false outside, seen through lawns that mimic interiors. People often perceive that any green space is nature. As Michael Ventur
Enlightenment Of 18th Century The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophers in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they hoped would provide a basis for benefic
Enlightenment Of 18th Century The enlightenment was a great time of change in both Europe and America. Some of the biggest changes, however, happened in the minds of many and in the writings of many philosophers. These included some of the beliefs of David Hume, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Francois Voltaire. Writers during this time focused on optimism, which is the opinion to do everything for the best (Chaney 119), and the best for these philosophers was to stretch the minds of
Enlightenment During the eighteenth century, Europeans experienced the dawning of an age of knowledge, reasoning, and of great scientific achievements. Their views toward new discoveries and advancements were optimistic. People began to turn to science for a better understanding of their world and their society. Literature and essays were commonly used to express their hopes for further developments in society, politics, economy, and education. I. Individuals A. John Locke 1) Essay Concerning H
Italian Renaissance "How was the Italian Renaissance an age in which life was a work of art?" The Renaissance was an important time. It was a time when new ideas were formed, worldly places became more important, and great people became known. All of which paved the way to future inventions, philosophies, and life as we know it. During the Renaissance, new possibilities were explored. One of which was a group of people who called themselves Humanists. Humanism was a movement based on the litera
Renaissance The renaissance first appeared in the Italian city states because of the similarity between their language and the Latin language. Humanism used classical works to improve speaking and writing skills; therefore the Italians had a great advantage. More manuscripts were made available for the Italians, which led to the production of more intellectual leaders. The writing and speaking skills of humanism was soon demanded at the princely courts. Humanism transformed art, literature and
Rome Builders The Ancient Roman culture had a direct impact on how we view art, literature, architecture, education and religion. Early Roman civilizations were very sophisticated and idealistic. They build great architectural buildings and performed famous playwrights at these ancient places. Romans were considered to most advanced civilization of their time. With beautiful statues, well designed buildings, and some of the greatest philosophers came from Rome. One of the most noticeable charac
Samantha Srinivasan Philosophy 101-01 Prof. Evans Dec. 16, 1998 Paper Assignment: Topic #3 Nietzsche is known as a philosopher who was very poetic in his writings. He used a real Persian prophet named Zarathustra, as his character within his philosophy. The way Plato used Socrates, Nietzsche used Zarathustra’s mouth to speak his philosophy. An example, how Nietzsche uses Zarathustra in his book is in the chapter entitled " On the Tree on the Mountain." Within this chapter, the story represents
Descartes was a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. Underlying his methodology is the belief that all science is based on mathematics. This is manifested in his unification of ancient geometry and his new alegbra based on the Cartesian coodinate system. For Descartes, certainty in philosphy and in mathematics is gained through understanding. We may know that two apples and two apples makes four apples,
The Life of Rene\' Descartes Rene\' Descartes was a French mathematician, philosopher and anatomist. He contributed a great deal to modern ideas , particularly those concerned with geometry. He was known in his time as a mechanist, because he believed that nature could be explained through rational means, and inherent patterns could be found. During his life, Descartes remade geometry and made modern geometry possible. Rene\' Descartes was born on March, 31 1596 in La Haye, Touraine, which was
Marcus Garvey Historians familiar with Garvey\'s career generally regard him as the preeminent symbol of the insurgent wave of black nationalism that developed in the period following World War I. Although born in Jamaica, Garvey achieved his greatest success in the United States. He did so despite the criticism of many African-American leaders and the covert opposition of the United States Department of Justice and its Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI). As a young man, Garvey had
South Korea South Korea is officially known as Taehan Min’guk (Republic of Korea). This country is in northeastern Asia and occupies the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. South Korea is bounded on the north by North Korea; on the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan); on the south bye the Korea Strait, which also separates it from Japan; and on the west by the Yellow Sea. It has a total area of 38,328 square miles, including many offshore islands in the south and west, and the largest is Che
Anarchy Anarchism seems to be defined many ways by many different sources. Most dictionary definitions define anarchism as the absence of government. A leading modern dictionary, Webster\'s Third International Dictionary, defines anarchism briefly but accurately as, "a political theory opposed to all forms of government and governmental restraint and advocating voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups in order to satisfy their needs." Other dictionaries describe anar
Civil Disobedence Throughout the history of the United States, there have been many times when citizens have felt the need to revolt against their government. Such cases of revolt took place during the times Henry David Thoreau. The reason for his revolution included discrimination against the community and Americans refusing to pay poll taxes to support the Mexican War. Thoreau used civil disobedience to change people\'s ideas and beliefs to stop the injustice brought against them and their na
Class Struggles Having declared in the opening sentence of the Manifesto that all history is the history of class struggles, Marx adds immediately in a footnote "of written history". For prior to the invention of writing, societies were nomadic, organized in tribes, each tribe made of less than 100 individuals. There was hardly any division of labor, other than sexual. The tribe would designate a chief, and modern ethnology tells us the chief had very little power. His main function was to defu
Capital Punishment And Church Crime is inevitably one of the biggest problems that faces the modern world today. It can be found all over the world, whether in large cities or small villages. Over time, society has tried to find ways to deal with crime. Such methods include community service, paying a fine serving some time in prison, and in the case of more serious crimes, the death penalty. This is the case in some states in the U.S. where persons have been executed for aggravated assault, ra
Capital Punishment And Ethics The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations and continues to be used as a form of punishment in countries today. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implemen
Capital Punishment Unlike popular belief, the death penalty does not act as a deterrent to criminals. As stated by Alfred Blumstein, "Expert after expert and study after study has shown the lack of correlation between the treat of the death penalty and the occurrence of violent crimes." (Blumstein 68) Isaac Ehrlich\'s study on the limiting effects of capital punishment in America reveals this to the public. The study spans twenty-five years, from 1957 till 1982, and shows that in the first year
Death Penalty The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implementation in today\'s society. The death penalty is morally and socially unethical, sho
Subliminal Ads A collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services while being integrated below the threshold of perception or awareness. To sell products, merchants consciously use subliminal advertising as a basis for general consumerism. This seems like an unnecessary task, but when taken into consideration all the people, who have expressed their disbelief in its effectiveness, it is obvious to see how vital and necessary such a task c
Condorcet Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, better known as Marquis de Condorcet, was born in Ribemont, Paris. He studied at Jesuit schools and the college de Navarre and later became a French philosppher, political leader, and mathmatician. He published a book titled Essai sur le calcul integral and in 1769 he was elected to the Academie des Sciences. He was very fasinated by probality and the philosophy of mathematics and this is where most of his famous work evolved from. He wrote Essay
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene which is now in Libya in North Africa. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. Eratosthenes then spent some years studying in Athens. The library at Alexandria was planned by Ptolemy I Soter and the project came to fruition under
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos is often described as the first pure mathematician. He is an extremely important figure in the development of mathematics yet we know relatively little about his mathematical achievements. Unlike many later Greek mathematicians, where at least we have some of the books which they wrote, we have nothing of Pythagoras\'s writings. The society which he led, half religious and half scientific, followed a code of secrecy which certainly means that today Pythagoras is a
Stifel And Roberval Michael Stifel was a German mathematician who lived in the late fifteenth century and early to mid-sixteenth century. He was born in 1487, in Esslingen, Germany. The exact date of his birth is unknown. Stifel died on April 19, 1567, in Jena, Germany. His father was Conrad Stifel, a well-respected member of the community. When Michael was young his family did not have much money. Not much is known about Stifel\'s life until the time he attended the University of Wittenberg, i
Beatles Break Up As they walked off the plane, thousands of people stood there to welcome them. They were screaming their names and singing their songs. Everyone had heard of them, they were the true meaning of rock and roll; they defined it. They were the biggest sensation since Elvis; they called themselves The Beatles. They had never expected to be the next sensation. No one ever expects to become a great legend in national or world history. It had taken them two years to establish the final
MTV Everyone remembers Michael Jackson\'s red leather jacket covered with zippers and the sexy style of Madonna. MTV, or music television, nationally publicizes these images and entertainers, and others like them. The station also promotes an idealized teen lifestyle, reflecting the images of these famous artists, that contrasts with the realities of the Generation X lifestyle. While some view the station as "illustrated radio" or an entertainment network for viewers\' pleasure, others more acc
Romantic Period A New Step in Music Since the beginning of organized music in the Middle Ages, like all the other fields of creativity and study, such as art, philosophy, and architecture, music has made leaps and bounds in the flow of progression. The Romantic period was a time when music began to take on a different meaning. The music began to become more subjective as opposed to objective music of the Classical period. The artist or composer became much more important as an individual. An ex
Antigone\'s Tragic Hero This analysis is to determine the character that fits the tragic hero profile; it was completely based according to the Aristotelian idea of tragic hero and it is understood that hero is: "...neither purely evil or purely wicked; the hero must born in the high social status, and he/she must possess a tragic flaw which is proper from the inner side of the character; it usually manifests in the form of poor judgment and or arrogance, condemning him/herself into a catastrop
Aristotle Aristotle was one of the most influential thinkers in western culture, and a Greek philosopher, teacher, and scientist. He was probably the most scholarly and learned of the ancient Greek Philosophers. Aristotle mastered the entire development of Greek though before him and employed this knowledge in his writings. He criticized, summarized, and furthered the development of the Greek philosophies. Aristotle, along with his teacher Plato, are the two most important Greek Philosophers. A
Mysticism In this article I would like to bring the findings of my somewhat unusual but increasingly accepted field — mysticism— to the discussion, for I think they may offer some helpful insights about consciousness. Why? When a biologist seeks to understand a complex phenomenon, one key strategy is to look to at it in its simplest form. Probably the most famous is the humble bacterium E. coli. Its simple gene structure has allowed us to understand much of the gene functioning of complex specie
Taoism Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western "folk psychology" in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of language. The core Chinese concept is xin (the heart-mind). As the translation suggests, Chinese folk psychology lacked a contrast between cognitive and affective states ([representative ideas, cognition, reason, beliefs] versus [desires, motives, emotions, feelings]). The xin guides action, but not
Aikido Aikido is a Japanese martial art currently practiced throughout the world. Behind the powerful catapulting throws and immobilizing locks and pins of Aikido lie some very simple principles: remove yourself from the direct line of your enemy’s attack, and through the absorption and deflection of the force of the attack, your enemy is taken out of balance and defeated by the energy of his or her own aggression. Aikido does not use strength against strength, but stresses body and mind relaxa
Allegory Of The Cave The Allegory of the Cave, like most things in philosophy, can be deciphered in many different ways. It basically says that people are chained to the wall of a cave and they have nothing to look at but shadows on the wall that are provided by another. This is all that they know and have never been out of the cave. That tells nothing on the surface, but once one looks really hard a few messages or meanings can be interpreted from the Allegory. The main point of the Allegory o
Anaximander About 530 AD the Neoplatonist Simplicius wrote an extensive commentary on Aristotle\'s Physics. In it he reproduced the Anaximander fragment, thus preserving it for the western world. He copied it from Theophrastus. From the time Anaximander pronounced his saying--we do not know where or when or to whom--to the moment Simplicius jotted it down in his commentary more than a millennium elapsed. Between the time of Simplicius\' jotting and the present moment lies another millennium-and
Anselm and Aquinas Although born in Alpine Italy and educated in Normandy, Anselm became a Benedictine monk, teacher, and abbot at Bec and continued his ecclesiastical career in England. Having been appointed the second Norman archbishop of Canterbury in 1093, Anselm secured the Westminster Agreement of 1107, guaranteeing the (partial) independence of the church from the civil state. In a series of short works such as De Libertate Arbitrii (On Free Will), De Casu Diaboli (The Fall of the Devil)
Anselm Of Canterbury Anselm concludes that one requires two wills to be free by arguing that to be free is to have an ability. In this paper I will argue that Anselm believes that this ability is incompatible with an Aristotelian doctrine of the will and that to have this ability, we must have at least two wills. Only in such a model is one free. Then I will argue that the agent who abandons justice differs from the one-willed creature Anselm considers in chapter 13,because the latter is not ac
Anselm On God In the beginning of Scholasticism, one of the biggest problems is the place of dialectic, because it was often inconsistent with theology. Anselm made a moderate point between dialectic, philosophy and theology; "We believe in order to understand rather than understand so that we may believe". From that point of view, He proved the existence of the God. In the "Proslogium", Anselm began his dialectic argument to define the God as ‘something-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-though
Aristotelian Philosophy Aristotle argues that happiness, function and morality are closely connected and that virtue is dependent upon all of them. To fully comprehend Aristotle’s theory, we must first examine each of these qualities and then determine how they are related to one another. The deliberation process will show that all of these qualities can be strongly connected, but not exclusively. Happiness, function, morality and virtue can exist independent of one another. The first deliberat