Philosophy

Aristotle On Theory Of Ideas Aristotle refutes Plato\'s Theory of Ideas on three basic grounds: that the existence of Ideas contradicts itself by denying the possibility of negations; that his illustrations of Ideas are merely empty metaphors; and that they theory uses impermanent abstractions to create examples of perception. Though the theory is meant to establish concrete standards for the knowledge of reality, Aristotle considers it fraught with inconsistencies and believes that the concept
Aristotle Refutes Plato Aristotle refutes Plato\'s Theory of Ideas on three basic grounds: that the existence of Ideas contradicts itself by denying the possibility of negations; that his illustrations of Ideas are merely empty metaphors; and that they theory uses impermanent abstractions to create examples of perception. Though the theory is meant to establish concrete standards for the knowledge of reality, Aristotle considers it fraught with inconsistencies and believes that the concept of r
Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC.; with him came the birth of Western realism. He was a student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great (Founders, 1991). It is difficult to discuss the philosophies of Aristotle without bringing up those of his former tutor, Plato. Aristotle\'s philosophies diverted from Plato\'s, and led to Aristotle forming his own school, the Lyceum. After tutoring Alexander the Great for about five years, he founded the Lyceum in Athens, Greece (Wheelwright, 1983).
Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC and lived until 322 BC. He was a Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato being considered the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. When he was 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato\'s Academy. He stayed for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his named
Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide (or Euthanasia) is a topic undergoing serious debate. There exist two obvious and definite opinions regarding this controversy. The anti-euthanasia faction consist of: ≤ Conservative religious groups. They are often the same organizations that oppose access to abortion. ≤ Medical associations whose members are dedicated to saving and extending life, and feel uncomfortable helping people end their lives. ≤ Groups concerned with disabilities, which fear that eutha
Categorical Imperative The principle of private happiness states that an individualís prosperity is weighed in proportion to that personís good conduct. In short, oneís peace of mind is empirically measured by how virtuous one is towards others and to himself. Kantís objection to ethical theories that use this idea emanates from the fact that it extends human reason, one that determines good will and good conduct, outwards instead of inwards, reason being automatic, inherent in an individual. T
Cesare Beccaria Cesare Beccaria is one of the most famous criminal justice theorists of all time. He lived from 1738 to 1794. He was the eldest son of an Aristocratic Family and was educated in a Jesuit school. His fascination with philosophy lead to him a bunch of friends who soon formed a group called "the academy of fists." This group focused their attention on reforming the criminal justice system. This group exposed Beccaria to many great philosophers, who encouraged his work. One to his m
Civil Rights And Disobedience By acting civil but disobedient you are able to protest things you donít think are fair, non-violently. Henry David Thoreau is one of the most important literary figures of the nineteenth century. Thoreauís essay "Civil Disobedience," which was written as a speech, has been used by many great thinkers such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Ghandi as a map to fight against injustice. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a pastor that headed the Civil Rights movement.
Cloning Shortly after the announcement that British scientists had successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today\'s society. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics that is, in their genes except for any differences caused by mutation. Ide
Computer Intellect A new issue has come about since the building of computers. But the idea behind it is not such a new issue, for as long ago as Plato and Aristotle, the idea of a mind was pondered about. With the up-and-coming technology, the idea of artificial intelligence has exploded. It is one that many fiction writers have prospered on. But how far away are they from the truth? Take the story of The Bicentennial Man by Isaac Asimov, written in 1976, when most of the population didnít know
Confucianism And Christianity The premise of Confucian teachings are centered around the idea of Jen or the ≥virtue of humanity (Ching 68).≤ To accomplish this divinity, five relationships must be honored: ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, elder and younger brother, and friend and friend (Hopfe). These relationships led a push for a revolution of the political system to adopt the methods of Jen. Confucius sought to revive the ancient Chinese culture by redefining the importa
Confucianism Confucianism, the philosophical system based on the teaching of Confucius (551-479 BC), dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina. The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics. It also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating Chine
Confucianism Confucianism, the philosophical system founded on the teaching of Confucius, who lived from 551 BC to 479 BC, dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of the Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina. The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics. It also blended with popular and important religions and became the veh
Confucius As Confucius\' philosophy still remains in the heart of many Chinese people. His images of the greatest professional teacher of all time, the greatest philosopher in Chinese history and his influence toward the future and the past 2000 years of Chinese civilization has made his thought the essence of the Chinese culture. He always said the importance of teaching could change the future of the civilization. And he also encouraged his students to explore the various things to learn, but
David Hume I would like to start by stating that the arguments I will present about David Humeís "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" are not going to be leaning completely towards his point of view or against it due to the fact that I agree with certain views on his philosophy and disagree with others. In "Of the Origin of Ideas", Hume divides all perceptions into two basic kinds: impressions, which are the "livelier" and "more vivid" perceptions; and ideas, which are "less lively" copi
David Hume "I was from the beginning scandalised, I must own, with this resemblance between the Deity and human creatures." --Philo David Hume wrote much about the subject of religion, much of it negative. In this paper we shall attempt to follow Hume\'s arguments against Deism as Someone knowable from the wake He allegedly makes as He passes. This kind of Deism he lays to rest. Then, digging deeper, we shall try our hand at a critique of his critique of religion, of resurrecting a natural beli
David Hume In An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume demonstrates how there is no way to rationally make any claims about future occurrences. According to Hume knowledge of matters of fact come from previous experience. From building on this rationale, Hume goes on to prove how, as humans we can only make inferences on what will happen in the future, based on our experiences of the past. But he points out that we are incorrect to believe that we are justified in using our experie
Descartes And Method Of Doubt French philosopher Rene Desartes\'s Meditation One: Concerning Those Things that Can Be Called into Doubt is a method of determining which beliefs are certain and which are doubtful. Descartes applied illusion argument, dreaming argument, and evil genius argument. In this paper, I will discuss how method of doubt supposed to work in general with examples and also why does Descartes adopts this particular method. Furthermore, I will add how method of doubt enables D
Descartes Applied To Biology Descartes method of questioning what is real is a very important aspect of the world of science. I will show how this method of philosophy is crucial to the studies of biology. Descartes said that the only time that something is not doubted is when it is clear and distinctly true. This is the difference in science between theory and fact. In order for something to be clear and distinct it must be a fact. DNA was discovered on April 25,1953 by James Watson and Franci
Descartes On Existence The question of our existence in reality is a question which philosophers have tackled throughout time. This essay will look at the phrase, cogito ergo sum or I think therefore I am, a phrase brought about by Rene Descartes. This phrase is the backbone of Descartes whole philosophy of our existence in reality. As long as we are thinking things, we exist. When we look at this approach to our existence we must first deny that any sensory data that we receive is believable o
Descartes On First Philosophy Rene Descartesí Meditations in the First Philosophy is a skepticís speculation on certain inalienable truths. Descartes meditations are based on the epistemological theory of rationalism: that is if someone truly knows something then they could not possibly be mistaken. He provides solid arguments for what his six meditations stand for, and how he obtained a clear and distinct perception of "innate" ideas. In Meditations he comes to terms with three certainties: th
Descartes On God Upon cursory examination, one might assume that Rene Descartes is a"non-believer" in the existence of a heavenly being, a God that presides over humans and gives us faith. However, this is simply not the case Ė Descartes is simply trying to destroy all of the uncertainties that have come about by the attempted scientific explanations of such a supreme being. For Rene Descartes and all of the other believers in the world, the existence of God provides a convenient answer to unex
Descartes On Metaphysics Descartesí Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is really real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowle
Descartes Descartes is famed by is familiar notion, "I think therefore I am (Cogito, ergo sum.)." It is a conclusion he has reached in his second meditation after much deliberation on the existence of anything certain. After he discovers his ability to doubt and to understand , he is able to substantiate his necessary existence as a consequence. What we doubt or understand may not ultimately correspond, but we can never be uncertain that we are in the process of thought. This idea is a major co
Egoism Ethics In ethics egoism entails that the individual self is either the motivating moral force and is, or should, be the end of moral action. Egoism divides into both a positive and normative ethic. The positive ethic views egoism as a factual description of human affairs, that is people are motivated by their own interests and desires. The normative ethic is that they should be so motivated. Positivist egoism: Psychological Egoism The positivist egoist, whose theory is called psychologic
Environmental Philosophy Many authors throughout history have expressed their, or societyís, yearning towards a simpler life: a life without responsibilities or obligations, a life without worry or regret. Sigurd Olson expresses such a yearning in his essay "Contemplation", where through reading Lao Tzu, he had discovered that in order to understand and relate to wilderness, we only need a contemplative mind, which is simple and easy. He suggested that life in wilderness is a continual contempla
Ethics Description The resurgence of ethics has been a striking phenomenon in the past decade. Although ethics has always had a role in the healthcare field, only in recent years has it become a subject of intense interest and controversy. In addition to others, this interest has affected a variety of other fields as well, in particular, philosophy, religion, social sciences, and law. Ethics are more than just high quality morals. Using ethical knowledge, attitude, skills, and habits require in
Evolution And Creation Evolution versus creation has been a debate lasting decades upon decades in the United States and around the world. The mock trial held during class, however, was not to prove one view as right and the other wrong. Rather, the focus of the trial, from the view of the prosecution, was simply to prove that creation should not be taught as a science in schools. The prosecution and the defense were each allowed four witnesses. A fifth grade science teacher, a preacher, a worl
Existentialism Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Jaspers write of many important issues concerning our existence and society in general, but the one that interests me the most is the belief in the ignorance and stupidity of the majority of the human race. We are so narrow-minded, so asleep, so afraid of exploring ourselves and what is beyond this all-encompassing story we have created and in which we live (and ironically hate). These four philosophers all seem to see the big picture. Some
Existentialism When the word "existentialism" is mentioned, what comes to mind? Lack of faith? Secular beliefs? It is a belief in living life. Could it be any simpler than that? Existentialists believe in free will, making choices, and living with those consequences. This is not some kind of weird "hippy" philosophy; it makes sense. Existentialistic thought is predominately a 20th century revelation. As a philosophy, it states that man possesses free will over his fate and the direction he want
Existentialism In the stranger, Camus uses Mersaults\' experiences such as his mothers\' death, killing the Arab, the trial, and his interaction with other characters throughout the novel to convey his philosophy, which satisfies all principals of existentialism. The existentialism idle proposes that man is full of anxiety and despair with no meaning in his life, just simple existing, until he\'s made a decisive being. To convey his existentialism philosophy, Camus use the death of Mersaults\',
Existentialist Movement Existentialism is a philosophical movement that developed in continental Europe during the 1800ís and 1900ís. Most of the members are interested in the nature of existence or being, by which they usually mean human existence. Although the philosophers generally considered to be existentialists often disagree with each other and sometimes even resent being classified together, they have been grouped together because they share many problems, interests, and ideas. The most
Feminism What is feminism? By general definition, feminism is a philosophy in which women and their contributions are valued. It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. Feminists can be anyone in the population, men, women, girl or boys. Feminism can also be described as a movement. A revolution that includes women and men who wish the world to be equal without boundaries. These boundaries or blockades are better known as discrimination and biases against gender, sexual
God Existence If you take a look up out in the sky on a seemingly clear night, try and ask yourself how the stars, the moon and everything else came to be. Again the question of existence takes over your mind the same way it did everyone else\'s years ago. How did the world begin? What was the cause? Who was the cause? A couple of weeks ago, I had the most interesting conversation with my brother. Actually, it was more like a provoked conversation to help me begin this paper. I asked him, "Do y
Hinduism And Buddhism Religion, what is religion? Religion is a way of life, a life style, it should dictate how you live your life. However why follow a religious belief, to go to heaven, avoid the condemnation to hell, to live forever? We in western society consider ourselves a not so religious society, we say "I am Christian" or "I am Jew" or "I am an Atheist I don\'t believe". Keep in mind religion is a life style, it should dictate how you live your life. Sadly in western society, money an
Hobbes Locke Rousseau Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau developed theories on human nature and how men govern themselves. With the passing of time, political views on the philosophy of government gradually changed. Despite their differences, Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, all became three of the most influential political theorists in the world. Their ideas and philosophies spread all over the world influencing the creation of many new governments. These philosophers all recogn
Humor Phenomenon There is a popular saying, "anyone can laugh at a good joke." If one was to actually ask around, heí/she would find that this is quite true. This is part of the magic of humor. Humor, as defined by The American Heritage Dictionary, is"the quality that makes something laughable." Laughter can be defined as"the co-ordinated contraction of fifteen facial muscles (Koestler 29). However that definition tells how one laughs. The American Heritage Dictionary explains why we laugh by d
Importance Of Yin-Yang This symbol, known as the Tíai Chi Chu symbol, or Yin-Yang symbol has its roots in ancient Chinese cosmology. The original meaning of "yin and yang" is representative of the mountains--both the dark side and the bright side, or the contrasting shaded and sunlight slopes of the mountain. These two words can possibly be traced back to the Shang and Chou Dynasty,(1550 - 1050BC). But most scholars credit the "Yin and Yang" to the Han Dynasty (206B.C.-A.D. 220). At this time,
John Locke And Politics John Locke and his ideas about philosophy was a major influence on the American political system, not to mention many other political systems, too. His ideas were very universal, especially those regarding rights and freedom, two topics for which the United States of America is best known. Locke claimed that"there is a law of nature governing human beings and that it is knowable by human reason"(Lavine, 136). This law of nature is the basis of American politics, one by w
Justice In the Republic, Plato attempts to answer one of philosophy\'s most central questions: What is justice or right conduct? Thrasymachus, who is upset at Socrates\' rhetoric interrupts, suggests that justice is what is in the interest of the stronger. Thrasymachus\'s view of justice is that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Thrasymachus explains this by expressing that the government makes rules to its own advantage and so it is declared just for their people. Socrates argues Thras
Kant\'s Morality Kant starts off making two distinctions regarding kinds of knowledge, empirical/rational and formal/material. Empirical or experience-based knowledge is contrasted with rational knowledge, which is independent of experience. This distinction between empirical and rational knowledge rests on a difference in sources of evidence used to support the two different kinds of knowledge. Formal is contrasted with material knowledge. Formal knowledge has no specific subject matter; it is
Karl Marx Karl Marx wrote many works throughout his time, but one of the works of his youth was called On Man and History. This work by Marx was written when he was a youth and was influenced by the Industrial Revolution and the works of Hegel philosophy. There are two sections in this document one is the Alienated Man and the other is History. The first section by Marx talks about how man is alienated by the process of labor and the product that is made out of the labor. Marx says that the pro
Knowledge Concept When discussing the concept of knowledge it must be made clear what type of knowledge is being discussed. Three types of knowledge are proposed in philosophy; object knowledge, know-how knowledge, and propositional knowledge. Object knowledge involves a person, place, or thing. For example saying that I know my friend Antony is object knowledge, implying that I have had personal contact with him and it could also imply that I know facts about him. Know-how consists of abilitie
Laura Purdy In Laura Purdyís essay "Are Pregnant Women Fetal Containers?" the issue that is dealt with is the relationship between pregnant women and their unborn fetus. She feels that the womanís rights to her body should outweigh the rights of the fetus. She argues that pregnant woman are treated like second-class citizens in our society and that medical decisions are placed upon them that are not necessary and unjust. Purdy also discusses the role of the fetus, the moral duty of the mother,
Locke Berkeley And Hume Enlightenment began with an unparalleled confidence in human reason. The new science\'s success in making clear the natural world through Locke, Berkeley, and Hume affected the efforts of philosophy in two ways. The first is by locating the basis of human knowledge in the human mind and its encounter with the physical world. Second is by directing philosophy\'s attention to an analysis of the mind that was capable of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for en
Martin King And Malcolm X Martin Luther King and Malcolm X two men vying for the same outcome but each at opposite sides of the spectrum. King was raised in a comfortable middle-class family where education was stressed. On the other hand, Malcolm X came from an underprivileged home. He was a self-taught man who received little schooling and rose to greatness on his own intelligence and determination. Martin Luther King was born into a family whose name in Atlanta was well established. Despite
Matrix Analysis "That is because you are seeing for the first time." What is he seeing? How is he seeing? These questions are often asked when referring to philosophy. Philosophy is based on questioning and searching for truths. In Matrix, the search and questions were for the truth about our own existence. We see that we are here on earth. We feel things and know things, but why? Is it because we are told to believe these things? The whole movie symbolized a path of life which most of us have
Meaning Of Life Is there a meaning to life? First, to clear up any misunderstandings in the next few paragraphs you are about to read, I shall explain a few things. I am not talking about the individual people in our lives, that mean so much to us, or individual lives. That is a whole other matter. What I mean by the "meaning of life", is the greater picture. There are people all over the world, doing their own thing, living their own lives, in their own areas. Is there a point to this? The peo
Montesquieu\'s Definition Of Law The following was completed for a Political Thought and Theory Class in my Senior Year of Highschool..my grade was an 85 Montesquieu: Definition of Law Into the first three chapters of Book 1, The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu condensed a lifetime of thinking, not so much on law as what law is, (after all, the work by Montesquieu is entitled The Spirit of Laws, not The Laws of the Spirit). The definition of law provided to us by Montesquieu can be most clearly ide
Moral Accountability Morality depends on the ability of an individual to choose between good and evil, thus, entailing freedom of the will and the moral responsibility of the individual for his actions. It is obvious this is so for the individual, but what about groups and governments? Do they have the ability to choose between good and evil, do they have free will and therefore are they subject to the same paradigms of morality as the individual or does an autonomous morality apply. What if we