Fascist Germany The 1930s were turbulent times in Germany\'s history. World War I had left the country in shambles and, as if that weren\'t enough, the people of Germany had been humiliated and stripped of their pride and dignity by the Allies. Germany\'s dream of becoming one of the strongest nations in the world no longer seemed to be a possibility and this caused resentment among the German people. It was clear that Germany needed some type of motivation to get itself back on its feet and thi
Gun Control During the first four weeks of our class, we have been reading and discussing numerous essays on the study of "culture". Each theorist we have read has questions and problems about the study of "culture". They have suggested us solutions to the problems as well. I have decided to closely analyze the essays from Richard Johnson, James Clifford, and Clifford Geertz. In his essay, "What is Cultural Studies Anyway?" Richard Johnson goes into detail describing critique. "Critique involve
Isaiah Berlin Isaiah Berlin became one of our century’s most important political theorists for liberty and liberalism in an age of totalitarianism. He was born in Riga, Latvia in 1909 into a well to do Jewish family. At the age of 12 he moved to Petrograd and experienced first hand the Bolshevik revolution, which would later influence his intellectual ideas about totalitarianism (Gray 3). In 1921 his family moved to London and sent Isaiah to school. His schooling lead him to Oxford where he too
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly iberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his f
Political Thought Changes The study of western political thought has endured a drastic change throughout the centuries. This shift occurred through the queries of ancient philosophical minds such as Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and St. Augustine. Two examples of great importance are the inequality of gender and the role of power distributed and issued within the state. Plato believed all people, men and women alike are created equal; this notion runs parallel to our modern day Constitution. He
Politics Of 1960s As the nineteen fifties turned into the early sixties, the United States remained the same patriotic, harmonious society of the previous decade; often a teen\'s most difficult decision was choosing what color lipstick to wear to the prom. Yet after 1963, a dramatic change slowly developed in the cultural, social, and political beliefs of America, particularly the youth. The death of President Kennedy, the new music, the quest for civil rights, the popularity of mind-altering dr
Prince Machiavelli was an Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher, whose amoral, but influential writings on power building have turned his name into a synonym for cunning and duplicity. I personally feel he is a genius. Niccolo Machiavelli was born on May 3, 1469, in Florence, Italy. He eventually became a man who lived his life for politics and patriotism. Right now, however, he is associated with corrupt, totalitarian government. The reason for this is a small pamphlet he wro
Southern Strategy The causes and consequences of the "Southern Strategy" as it relates to African-Americans and the American political system. Richard Nixon\'s "Southern Strategy" (or as the Nixon administration would call it "positive polarization") of the 1960s was a political platform that provided the final push in transforming the "the party of Lincoln" into the political party greatly favored by the great grandsons of the old Confederacy. This strategy was aimed at getting support from th
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3d PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. As the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, he is probably the most conspicuous champion of political and spiritual freedom in his country\'s history. He voiced the aspirations of the new nation in matchless phrase, and one may doubt if any other American has been so often quoted. As a public official--legislator, diplomat, and executive--he served the province
Dream Interpretation There are many facts that are unknown about dreams and their meanings. For centuries, philosophers and scientists have tried to understand the meaning of dreams. They have all been fascinated by the fact that the content of dreams may have meanings relating to one’s life. Are dreams just thoughts in people’s minds, or are dreams in fact representations of different areas in people’s lives? Dreams represent many different areas of one’s life in physical, emotional, and menta
Ellis And Glasser Albert Ellis and William Glasser have been in the mainstream of psychological society for over four decades. Both have contributed greatly to modern psychotherapy. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) of Albert Ellis and the Reality therapy of William Glasser have endured the trendy world of psychology and in fact as they are based in ancient philosophy (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius), they also remain the foundation for brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and ecc
Freud Sigmund Freud was the first of six children to be born into his middle class, Jewish family. His father was a wool merchant, and was the provider for the family. From the time Freud was a child, he pondered theories in math, science, and philosophy, but in his teens, he took a deep interest in what he later called psychoanalysis. He wanted to discover how a person’s mind works, so he began to explore the conscious and unconscious parts of one’s psyche. Freud’s parents and siblings were di
Herman Ebbinghaus During the late 1800\'s a new science was emerging in Europe. Psychology\'s roots can be traced back to Germany and a man by the name of William Wunt. Following Wunt other psychologists began emerging in different fields. Of these pioneers Herman Ebbinghaus was one, and his field of study was memory. He performed the first experiments in 1885 in Germany and the following is a background on the man and his field. Herman Ebbinghaus was born in 1850 in Germany and died there in 1
Hierarchy Of Needs The hierarchy of needs and the hygiene theory are alike but are also different. I shall go through each one of these theories and inform the reader of these differences and similarities. Each one in its own right is correct but now that we near the millenium, we should rethink or atleast re-read these theories and see if they are, in fact, still alive today. Abraham Maslow is known for establishing the theory of a hierarchy of needs, writing that human beings are motivated by
Jean Piaget This paper revolves around developmental psychologist Jean Piaget and his work. While swaying from the personal to the professional sides of the Swiss psychologist, the research touches on key influences that inspired young Piaget to become such a driven and well respected psychologist. However, the most extensive part of this paper is the explanation of his cognitive development theory and how it evolved. The three main pieces to Piaget\'s puzzle of cognitive development that are d
Juvenile Violence The latest craze? Two boys at an Arkansas middle school killed four girls and one teacher in what police called a carefully planned ambush on the afternoon of Tuesday March 25, 1998. Nine other girls and one other teacher were also wounded in the attack at the Westside Middle School, located in a quiet rural area just west of Jonesboro, Arkansas. In a similar incident in Littleton, Colorado, two students, cloaked in black trench coats and armed with guns and bombs, opened fire
Mass Communications This is NOT an essay - it is a collection of notes which are the foundation of an 800 word comparison of two articles regarding the place of humanities in university studies, and the roles of mass communication. Part 1 (800 words - 30%) You will be given two short readings by the end of Week 3 of the Semester. Identify the approach or approaches used in each, and with reference to the features and examples of the identified approaches as presented in Subject materials, justi
Memory Study The study of human memory and in particular the attempts to distinguish between different types of memory have benn investigated for the last century. Philosophy, psychiatry and psychologh have all contributed to this study. Korsakoff, Freud and Ebbinghaus are among the early contributers. Although their observations were not always methodological as strict as with current research they did play a vital role. One critisim of the early work was that there were few attempts to develo
Multiple Personality Disorder The most famous dissociative disorder is Multiple Personality Disorder, also known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). It is estimated that one in one hundred people may suffer from Multiple Personality Disorder and other Dissociative Disorders. With correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment, people have the potential for complete recovery. Multiple Personality Disorder is a condition in which a person has more than one identity, each of which speaks, acts a
Piaget And Vygotsky Everyday life is characterized by conscious purpose. From reaching for food to designing an experiment, our actions are directed at goals. This purpose reveals itself partly in our conscious awareness and partly in the organization of our thoughts and actions. Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. Much past and present theory has emphasized the parallels between the articulated prepositional structure
Sigmund Freud Imagine this: a man who can know the brain and understand the conflict that is occurring when we encounter anxiety and unhappiness. Mr. Sigmund Freud had this ability. He knew the human brain all too well. Before entering the University of Vienna in 1873, the youthful Sigmund Freud had signs of brilliance and intelligence. He had a magnificent memory. He loved reading so much that he once ran up a large bill at a local bookstore that was beyond his budget. He had an obsession with
Skinner\'s Influence B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writer. His work has been published in many journals. He also has written many books on behaviorism. His most important work was t
Universal Neurosis Sigmund Freud defined the goal of psychoanalysis to be to replace unconscious with conscious awareness, where his ego shall be, and through this an individual would achieve self-control and reasonable satisfaction of instincts. His fundamental ideas include psychic determinism, the power and influence of the unconscious, as opposed to the pre-conscious mind, the tripartite division into id, ego and super-ego, and of course the ideas of universal illusion and universal effects
Buddhism And Taoism The belief in some higher presence, other than our own, has existed since man can recollect. Religion was established from this belief, and it can survive and flourish because of this belief. In Chinese history, Taoism and Buddhism are two great phiosophical and religious traditions along with Confucianism. Taoism, originated in China around the sixth century B.C.E. and Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era, Together have shaped Chine
Buddhism In America The stresses and intensity of modern American society have influenced many people to adopt and adapt the principles of Buddhism and other Eastern religions. Some recent statistics from the US department of Health and Human Services show that 75% of the General Population experiences at least "some stress" every two weeks (National Health Interview Survey). Half of those experience moderate or high levels of stress during the same two-week period. It is common knowledge that
Buddhism Of Theravada And Mahayana A question asked by many people is " What is the difference between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism?" To find the answer let us look at the history of Buddhism and compare and contrast the beliefs and philosophies of the two. The Buddah, Siddhartha Gautama, was born in the 6th century B.C.E. in Northwestern India. The Buddah was the son of an aristocrat and grew up in a world of affluence and privilege. His father, Suddhodana took every precaution to make sure
Buddhism I have considered myself to be a fairly religious person. I went to a Presbyterian elementary and middle school, a Christian School. At C.S. we had a religion class everyday. The difference from then and now is then we learned strictly about Christianity. I had never heard about evolution and other religions until I was in high school. I had only known that there was one God, and it was He to which we prayed. I knew that there was a heaven and a hell. The good people went to heaven and
Buddhism 1st OHP --BUDDHISM What is Buddhism? Buddha is the central symbol and reality of Buddhism, because he embodies the way of thinking and living. It is an analysis and description of human existence as conditioned by desire and ignorance and a method of attainment of spiritual freedom through human effort. In short, it describe human predicament and offers a rational method of spiritual freedom. Origins of Buddhism Borned as Siddhartha Gautama (563 – 483BC) as the son of an Indian Prince.
Buddhism Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northeast India during the period from the late 6th century to the early 4th century BC. Spreading from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, Buddhism has played an influential role in the spiritual, cultural, and social life of much of the Eastern world. The Buddha, which means the "Enlightened One," died in northeastern India between 500 and 350 BC. According to tradition, his family name w
Catholic Church And Contraception The issue of contraception has been an extremely controversial and debated one in the Catholic Church. The Catholic religion declares that the three requirements for healthy sexual expression include a mutual physical drive for pleasure, intimacy and committed love between the couple, and the openness to procreation and parenting children. This last aspect is the subject of much disagreement between people both inside and outside the church community. The autho
Chinese Attitudes About Death Throughout the history of mankind, "death" has always been a fascination. People have always wondered about the causes of death, the aftermath of death, and whether it could be stopped. Among these people were the Chinese, who like many other people, believed there was life after death. They performed certain rituals " to help them along their way." Chinese attitudes toward death are reflected in funerary rituals, Buddhist philosophy and reverence for the deceased.
Confucius The history of Chinese civilization spans thousands of years and encompasses countless ideas, beliefs, and societal and political doctrines. However, from a modern standpoint one distinct perspective prevails above the rest in the manner and degree it has influenced the development of China. For the previous 2,000 years the teachings of Confucius, and the systems of thought and behavior that have evolved from them, have had significant effects on Chinese thought, government institutio
Buddhism And Confucianism Throughout history, great civilizations and people have risen and fallen, and during their fleeting existence, religious activities have assumed important functions in those societies. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Islam, are three legacies left by great men, which still have a profound affect on society. Like with all human inventions, though, these three philosophies are all relative to each other : They are comparable in their simplicity of beliefs, the emphasis they
Evil Problem "No one who conjures up the most evil of those half-tamed demons that inhabit the human breast and seeks to wrestle with them can expect to come through the struggle unscathed." -Dora (Complete Psychological Works) There exists an all poweful force in this universe that makes man fall into an eternal abyss of illusion and hell. It is called Maya (Cosmic Illusion) by the Vedanta and"evil" by the English It wounds the opponent always, many times almost fatally. It is the most ferocio
Gandhi Teachings From Gandhi, to Gandhiji, to ‘Mahatma’ and ‘Bapu’, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi has traveled the distance from being the national hero to a legend. Gandhi, in life, was much more. Gandhi was a thinker, a philosopher, and also a statesman. He believed he could lead only if he was a worthy leader. To be a worthy leader he had to be morally strong. As he used to say, "A liar could not teach his pupils to speak the truth, a coward can not train young men to be brave." So to be morall
God Concept The concept of God, or any god, is one that has definite boundaries. There are many questions that arise concerning the nature of God, or even whether or not there really is one. The most common god in today\'s society is "God", the "Supreme Being" worshipped by Muslims as "Allah," by Jews as "Yahweh," and by popular Christianity simply as "God." Generally, He is thought to be in the image of humans, and in most cases of worshipping this particular deity, He is omnipotent, omniscien
God Existence Proofs Either God exists or He doesn\'t. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to God\'s existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. It is far from a "moot" question, for if God does exist, then nothing else really matters; if He does not exist, then nothing really matters at all. If He does exist, then there is an eternal heaven to be gained (Hebrews 11:16) and an eternal Hell to be avoided (Revelation 21:8). The question for God\'s existen
God Existence Question Does a God Exist? Either God exists or He doesn\'t. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to God\'s existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. It is far from a simple clear cut question, for if God does exist, then nothing else really matters; if He does not exist, then nothing really matters at all. If He does exist, then there is an eternal heaven to be gained (Hebrews 11:16) and an eternal Hell to be avoided (Revelation 21:8). Th
God\'s Plan And Science Read from the book of Mark 13:6-8, 12-13, 21-23, 29-31. Now in my sermon today we will analyze the differences between scientific and biblical studies, before Christ, and after.... First, scientist believe in what is know as the human evolution. Now according to the Encarta encyclopedia the Human Evolution, is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. Now, scientist say that a large number of fossil bones and teeth have been fo
Hindu Revival In America Hindu Revival In An Alien Land. America is coming alive with the sounds and images of Hinduism. From Ras and Garbha dances during Navratri in Chicago and Edison to Diwali fireworks in Manhattan\'s South Street Seaport; from the sounds of conches and the chanting of hymnals at temple ceremonies in Pittsburgh and Flushing to the consecration of new dieties at the Balaji Temple in Bridgewater, N.J., and the foundation-laying ceremony for a new Shree Raseshwari temple in Au
Hindu Revival Hindu revivalism remains a growing force in India today. It is also a concern among the millions of displaced Hindus scattered around the world. Its roots lie in the belief that Hinduism is an endangered lifestyle. This notion is fuelled by the political assertiveness of minority groups, efforts to convert Hindus to other faiths, suspicions that the political authorities are sympathetic to minority groups and the belief that foreign political and religious ideologies are destroying
Hinduism And Christianity One would think that Christianity and Hinduism would have nothing in common, but in some ways they are. But mostly there are differences between the two. In this comparison that I am making one can find these similarities and differences. First I will start off by helping one understand Hinduism. To define Hinduism is very nearly impossible. Actually it is not so much a religion as a religion-social system. Although Hinduism contains a whole farrago of theologies, phil
Hinduism While examining different religious paths within Hinduism from the perspective of four patterns of transcendence (ancestral, cultural, mythical and experiential) it is interesting to see how each pattern found its dominance over four segments of Hinduism: Vedic sacrifice, the way of action, the way of devotion and the way of knowledge. When Hinduism originated as a religion it was mainly concerned with sacrifices for ancestors. The sacred texts - called the Vedas - on which Hinduism wa
Hinduism Hinduism was founded sometime between 1500 and 500 CE in the are of the Indus valley civilization. There is no individual founder and no names given to say who developed it. They are many gods in the religion of Hinduism. Many Hindu followers believe that one of the gods is the true god, this creates a division in Hinduism, Vaishnavaism and Shivaism. People who follow Vaishnavaism believe that Vishnu is the one true god and people who follow Shivasim believe that Shiva is the one true
Human And Divine 1) Introduction Through out history, as man progressed from a primitive animal to a "human being" capable of thought and reason, mankind has had to throw questions about the meaning of our own existence to ourselves. Out of those trail of thoughts appeared religion, art, and philosophy, the fundamental process of questioning about existence. Who we are, how we came to be, where we are going, what the most ideal state is....... All these questions had to be asked and if not give
John Paul II Karol Wojtyla was born on May 18, 1920 at Wadowice, Poland. For many years Karol believed God was calling him to the priesthood, and after two near fatal accidents, he responded to God\'s call. He studied secretely during the German occupation of Poland, and was ordained to the priesthood on November 1, 1946. In these years he came to know and practice the teachings of St. Louis Marie Montfort and St. John of the Cross. He earned a doctorate in theology in 1948 at the Angelicum in
Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German theologian and religious reformer that had a great impact on not only religion but also on politics, economics, education and language. Martin Luther was born in the town of Eisleben, Germany, on November 10, 1483, (Encarta 1). His father Hans Luther, was a worker in the copper mines in Mansfield. His mother was Margaret. Martin grew up in a home where parents prayed faithfully to the saints and taught their children to do the same. His father and mother
Reincarnation Biological death is defined and accepted. Winstead- Fry points out that within sensory science, death is the termination of certain biophysical functions. "We can empirically confirm the existence and ending of life." ( 163) The criteria for brain death are accepted as proof of biological death. Of course if one considers the human being and the human body as one, then death must be a definite ending. But what about those who believes the soul never dies? There is the belief that
Religious Experience On Wednesday, March 29, 2000 my friendand I attended the Morning Prayer service at the Hare Krishna Farm. The worship began at 7:15 A.M and lasted until 8:45 A.M. Breakfast then followed. At the Hare Krishna Farm wemet Indulekha Devi dasi who explained to us many aspects of their worship. The temple room itself was very impressive. On one side of the temple was a statue of Srila Prabhubada, the spiritual master who brought the Hare Krishna movement to the West. On the oppos
Scientology Scientology is a fairly new religion. Founded in the twentieth-century by a man by the name of L. Ron Hubbard. He began his studies long ago and wrote a book in 1950 called Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. He claimed that this book was one of the first tools used to solve the problems of the mind. This book focused on irrational mind, war, crime, and insanity. Mr. Hubbard designed this book so that anyone can use it to improve oneself. He did not stop at Dianetics, ho