The History of Dinosaurs The dinosaurs were reptiles that appeared about 230 million years ago. It\'s believed that they had scaly skin and some ate plants and others ate meat. Scientists don\'t know whether or not the dinosaurs were cold blooded, but they think the smaller ones were warm blooded, and the large ones were cold-blooded. In this report you\'ll learn about the earliest dinosaurs, the kinds of dinosaurs, and how the dinosaurs died. There are two main groups of the earliest dinosaurs
Austria Austria is the republic in central Europe. It is about 360 miles long and has an area of about 32,378 square miles. Vienna is the country’s capital and largest city. Austria is predominantly a mountainous country, with an average elevation of about 3000 feet. Most of the land falls within the eastern part of the Alps. In general the major mountain ranges of Austria run in an eastern-western direction and are separated from one another by large valleys. The northernmost line of ranges in
Coral Reefs Coral reefs are arguably the world’s most beautiful habitats. Coral reefs have been called the rainforests of the oceans, because of the rich diversity of life they support. Scientists have not yet finished counting the thousands of different species of plants and animals that use or live in the coral reef. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls. Fringing reefs are located close to shore, separated from land by only shallow water. Barrier ree
Costa Del Sol It is possible that the Neolithic revolution, the discovery of agriculture the passage of nomadic to sedentary peoples, reached Europe by way of Africa through what is known today as Andalusia. This historical center of influence, an east - west displacement, from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic began with a revolution that introduced the usage of metals and the arrival of colonizers from the east. A confluence of fertile lands, of metallurgy and fishing activities took place in
Czech Republic Senator Joseph McCarthy’s political career was in danger when he walked into the Colony Restaurant in Washington, DC for dinner with three of his friends. The date was January 7, 1950. A month earlier, he had been voted worst U.S. Senator in a poll of Senate correspondents. In his earlier years as Senator, he had been known for taking loans and funds from businesses totaling $30,000. This included the Pepsi-Cola company, which earned him the nickname "Pepsi-Cola Joe"1, and the Lu
Earthquakes Earthquake, shaking of the earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the earth’s rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the earth by earthquake waves. The study of earthquakes and the waves they create is called seismology. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists. (Webster’s p.423) The destruction an earthquake causes, depends
Grand Canyon We decided, for our Science Project, that we would learn about the Grand Canyon and its layers. It is located in Arizona and is one of the greatest natural wonders of the world that is around eighteen miles wide and nearly 280 miles long. The width and depth of the Canyon vary from place to place. At the South Rim, near Grand Canyon Village, it’s a vertical mile, which is about 5000 feet from rim to river. The width of the Canyon at Grand Canyon Village is 10 miles from rim to rim;
Hurricane Gilbert During the year of 1988, several events changed the lives of hundreds of people. The summer Olympics, a presidential election, and Hurricane Gilbert which tore through Jamaica, part of Mexico and the United States. Hurricane Gilbert occurred between September 10th and the 17th. Hurricane Gilbert was one of the most wretched storms of the century. What had started out as a tropical storm, grew into a terrible nightmare for those that lived in Jamaica. "The onset of the storm wa
Hurricanes Summer is over and fall has arrived- but many people to the south of us are observing another season- hurricane season. According to the Montshire Museum of Science, "hurricanes usually occur in the North Atlantic from June to November, with most of them in September." On average, between six to eight hurricanes form in the North Atlantic or North Pacific each year (Montshire). However, as many as 15 have occurred in the Atlantic in a single year. Hurricanes are powerful, whirling st
Hurricanes Hurricane, what does it mean? What do hurricanes do? What kind of powers do they possess? Where regions of the world are mostly affected by these hurricanes? All these questions I plan to answer in the following paragraphs. One thing we do know for sure is that a hurricane is one of the most devastating storms that Mother Nature has to offer. We also know that hurricanes cause a lot of damage to homes, businesses, and peoples lives. The term "hurricane" is a regionally specific name
Indians Immigrating To America Their homeland has the second largest population in the world, yet in America they form one of our smallest minorities. Americans were influenced by their beliefs long before the first immigrants arrived, and an important interchange of ideas has continued to the present day. Although many came to America as early as the turn of the century, they were denied citizenship until a congressional act granted it in 1946. Now they are students and teachers in our univers
Minnesota Hi! I’m Amanda. I chose to do my report on Minnesota because that\'s where I’m from. In fact, my whole family is from Minneapolis. I thought it would be interesting to know more about where I came from. So sit back, relax, and enjoy my report on Minnesota. Like all other states, Minnesota has many special qualities of its own. The Norway pine is the state tree. The loon is the state bird. The pink and white lady slipper is the lovely state flower. "Star of the North" is the state mott
Stone Hedge Stone Hedge is a very complicated structure witch is located in England. It has many myths, legends, and questions surrounding its uses and origin. In this report it goes over the probabilities for the uses of Stone Hedge. Also it gives reasons why or why not it could have been used for that reason. Plus it gives a brief history about when and who built it. Stone Hedge is an elaborate circular formation mainly large blue stone and tertiary sandstone. It is located about eight miles
Thailand Thailand, formerly Siam, officially Kingdom of Thailand, kingdom in Southeast Asia, bounded by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) on the north and west, by Laos on the northeast, by Cambodia and the Gulf of Thailand (Siam) on the southeast, by Malaysia on the south, and by the Andaman Sea and Myanmar on the southwest. The total area of Thailand is 513,115 sq km (198,115 sq mi). Bangkok is the capital and largest city. IILAND AND RESOURCES Thailand lies within the Indochinese Peninsula (s
Tropical Rainforests Of The World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being discussed is the
Censoring Internet The freedom of speech that was possible on the Internet could now be subjected to governmental approvals. For example, China is attempting to restrict political expression, in the name of security and social stability. It requires users of the Internet and e-mail to register, so that they can monitor their activities (Gates). In the United Kingdom, state secrets and personal attacks are off limits on the Internet. Laws are strict and the government is extremely interested in
Crime Detection In recent times, science has provided substantial aid to crime detection. Because anything in the physical universe has the potential of becoming an item of evidence in an investigation, a wide variety of procedures may be used in analyzing and interpreting evidence in a criminal case. These procedures include handwriting analysis, forensic photography, crime scene documentation, metallurgical investigations, chain of custody, entomology, and blood spatters. The first thing you
Labor Statistics The relatively recent development of longitudinal establishment datasets has generated quite a bit of excitement in both the academic and the statistical communities. From this literature, we have learned that there is a large amount of volatility at the individual establishment level that underlies the smooth time series of aggregate employment growth. The descriptive statistics coming out of this literature have not only stimulated the review and updating of existing labor ma
Machiavelli\'s Prince The Prince, written in 1513 by Niccolo Machiavelli is regarded as one of the most crucial yet controversial works in the field of political science. It holds Machiavelli\'s observations and reflections on Italian political history. It was written in response to the decay of the Italian states system. This book was designed specifically to captivate and transform its readers to analyze and adopt Machiavelli\'s perspective as it was initially written and dedicated to Lorenzo
Mulroney Mulroney became the 18th prime minister of Canada on September 17, 1984, after his party, the Progressive Conservatives won the greatest parliamentary victory ever in Canadian history. Mulroney was born in 1939, the son of an electrician, in the paper mill town of Baie Comeau, Quebec. Mulroney attended a very strict military type all boys’ school until the age of 16 when he entered Saint Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. There he earned an honor degree in political
US Government William Jefferson Clinton William Jefferson Clinton was born on August 19, 1946, in Hope, Arkansas. His father, William J. Blythe III was killed in an automobile collision just two months before William’s birth. At age four, William Jefferson Blythe IV was legally adopted by his mothers second husband, Roger Clinton, making him William Jefferson Clinton. At age 22 William received a Bachelor’s degree from Georgetown University. Just five years later, he received his law degree fro
Abortion "At the heart of liberty is the right to define one\'s own concept of existence, of meaning, of the universe, and of the mystery of human life. Beliefs about these matters could not define the attributes of personhood were they formed under compulsion of the State."1 U.S. Supreme Court Justices O\'Conner, Kennedy and Souter Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey Abortion in the United States Before Roe When Roe v. Wade was decided in January 1973, abortion except to s
Aging Theories This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming "worn out." Aging is a v
AIDS Immunology The Immunology of Aids Introduction Although HIV was first identified in 1983, studies of previously stored blood samples indicate that the virus entered the U.S. population sometime in the late 1970s. Worldwide, an estimated 27.9 million people had become HIV-infected through mid-1996, and 7.7 million had developed AIDS, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS is a disease of the immune system, and is caused by Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV targets and
AIDS In Detail Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Today, despite the continuing production of better antibiotics since the discovery of penicillin, we are facing an infectious disease against which all these drugs are virtually powerless. This disease is spreading inexorably, killing more people and more people each year. AIDS does not know no national boundaries and does not discriminate by race or sex. It is rampaging not only throughout the United States, but also through Africa, Ind
Aids US Monster In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of "Top Secret", Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. "Top Secret" is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Names column, which CA
AIDS AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a senten,ce of slow but inevitable death. I\'ve already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There curreently is neither a cure, nor even a
Alternative Health Care Alternative health care, also known as holistic or homeopathic care, is a myriad of unconventional health care approaches to healing and improving ill health. Dr. Samuel Hahnemann discovered homeopathy in the early 1800’s. He was sick of the art of medicine practiced in his time; he said it was barbaric. He knew there had to be alternatives so, like any devoted science lover would do, he experimented on himself and his friends. Hahnemann found that large dosages of herbs
Alternative Medicine Chiropractic is the third largest doctoral-level health profession in the United States, after medicine and dentistry. This form of health care is on the rise and there are more than forty thousand chiropractors in practice in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and many other nations. Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine commonly used and accepted today. Chiropractic is specifically defined as a therapeutic system of curing ailments and manipulation of va
Alzheimer\'s Disease Alzheimer\'s Disease (AD) is one of the most common of the dementing illnesses. A progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing impaired memory, thinking and behavior. A person with Alzhiemers Disease may experience personality and behavior changes, impaired judgment, confusion and difficulty finishing thoughts, following directions or even finding the right word to say in a conversation. Once advanced the sufferer may require a caretaker as daily chores
Anemia What is Anemia? Anemia is a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. The word anemia comes from two Greek roots, together meaning "without blood." At the beginning of the nineteenth century, "anemia" referred to the pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. After medical science advanced, blood cell counts could be done. Anemia became the disease we know today. Symptoms of Anemia Mild anemia may have no outer symptoms. Weakness, fatigue, and pallor are very common symptom
Anesthesiology And Nursing Who would have thought that a small carbon based organic compound such as ether would spawn a new field of medical specializations, changing the history of medicine for ever. Ether was discovered in 1275 by a Spanish chemist named Raymundus Lullius,(Evans,1995,p 1). It was his discovery that allowed William E. Clark to use ether as an anesthetic for the first time in 1842. He administered the ether on a dental patient for Elijah Pope as he performed a dental extractio
Anesthetics Anesthesia is a partial or complete loss of sensation or feeling induced by the administration of various substances. For many decade, people have used one form of an anesthetic during surgical procedures. Some people also use some of these anesthetics as recreational drugs, e.g. laughing gas (a.k.a. Nitrous Oxide). The term anesthetic literally means "without feeling". There are many different types of anesthesia, but they are usually put into three groups. These groups are gene- r
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is a very serious disease that is plaguing many young people in our society. This is something that is becoming more and more prevalent. It is something that should not be taken lightly. I have chosen to do my Science report on this topic, because it is something intriguing and it is found in many teens. This is a topic that is too foreign to many people and they need to be educated on the subject. I hope to help that in anyway I can. In the following paragraph
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight. Disturbance in the way in which one\'s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight. This condition is both a physical illness and a psychiatric illness. Anorexia nervosa can be a very sev
Aromatherapy There are literally hundreds of types of unconventional medicines. An unconventional medicine is any type of therapy that is different from traditional medicine in the way that it focuses on a patient’s mind, body, and inner energy, to aid in healing. Some, use magic charms, colour therapy, sound therapy, and juice therapy, in which natural juices are used as tonic therapies. Flower remedy is a system of natural medicine that uses remedies distilled from blooming plants and trees,
Cancer Treatment In recent years Cancer is disease that has seemed to captivate and frighten Americans. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. with more than 1 million new cases occurring a year. With each day scientific findings aid a better understanding of the causes of the disease. These findings have opened doors to help treat cancer patients more effectively. Scientists have gained a more specific knowledge of individual cancers and now through the wonders of science have
Creatine If, about 5 years ago, you were to tell an athlete there was a supplement (which was not an anabolic steroid or other bodybuilding drug) that would help bodybuilders and athletes pack on as much as 10 rock-hard pounds of muscular bodyweight (which could lead to better performance for athletes) in less then 2 weeks; increase their bench press by 25 lbs. (which also would help in enhancing performance) in a mere 10 days; "get a pump like you were loaded on Dianabol"(Phillips 48) (a pump
Cryptosporidium What we as a society do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can live productive and vigorous lives. Public Health does things that benefit everyone. It also prevents illness and educates the population. Public Health is a combination of science, practical skills and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of people. The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting physical health and efficiency through o
Cystic Fibrosis Caucasian people carries at least one of the fatal defective genes that cause cystic fibrosis, CF, or mucoviscidosis (in Europe) although carriers don\'t show any signs of the disease. Therefore, 10 million2 people carry the defective gene and aren\'t aware of it. Consequently, it makes it one of the most common genetic defect in the United States. CF is a autosomal recessive gene. That means that it may, but doesn\'t always skip generations. In order to get this disease, both p
Diabetes And Physical Activity Health implications of diabetes type I Physical Activity What is physical activity? Why do we need physical activity in our lives? Physical Activity and Diabetes (Epidemiology) For our seminar topic "physical activity and disease" we chose diabetes as the focus of our research. Since diabetes is such a complex disease with many different forms, we decided to focus on diabetes type I. This is known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This type of diabete
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either cannot or has trouble making enough insulin to control the sugar a person receives from their food. (Bete, Co. 1972) Diabetes Mellitus is broken down into two groups: Juvenile (Type One), and Adult (Type Two) (McHenry, 1993). Type One diabetics are insulin dependant. People under forty years of age are more prone to this type. They have low serum insulin levels and it more often affects small blood vessels in eyes and kidneys. Type Two
Dieting "You are what you eat", goes a famous saying. And if that is truly the case, then a lot of Americans would appear to be unhealthy, chemically treated, commercially raised slabs of animal flesh. And while that is not a particularly pleasant thought, it is nonetheless an description of the typical American omnivore who survives on the consumption of Big Macs and steak fajitas. But there are individuals who do not follow this American norm and have altered their diets so that they do not co
Dwarfism Or Anchondroplasia In medicine, ACHONDROPLASIA is known as being undersized, or less than 50in. in height. Having short limbs, a normal sized trunk, large head with a depressed nasal bridge and small face. This is a result of a disease in the thyroid gland. It can also be caused by Down syndrome or absorption, a cartilaginous tissue during the fetal stage. Hypochondroplasia, a mild form of dwarfism. Spinal tuberculosis and the deficiency of the pituitary gland secretions. Treatment wit
Ebola Virus Ebola virus, a member of the Filoviridae, burst from obscurity with spectacular outbreaks of severe, haemorrhagic fever. It was first associated with an outbreak of 318 cases and a case-fatality rate of 90% in Zaire and caused 150 deaths among 250 cases in Sudan. Smaller outbreaks continue to appear periodically, particularly in East, Central and southern Africa. In 1989, a haemorrhagic disease was recognized among cynomolgus macaques imported into the United States from the Philipp
Gambling Disease In the US today, as gambling is becoming more popular so are gambling addicts. As the states institute legalized gambling, their income increases dramatically. Compulsive gambling needs to be recognized and medically treated before it is too late for the gambler. The only way to treat the disease of compulsive gambling is absence from gambling. Therefore, compulsive gambling must be considered and uncontrollable disease. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, compulsive m
Healthcare In today\'s fast-paced world where technology rules, the medical profession is also advancing. In 1991, 2,900 liver transplants were performed in the United States while there were 30,000 canidates for the procedure in the United States alone (Heffron, T. G., 1993). Due to shortages of available organs for donation/transplantation, specifically livers, once again science has come to the rescue. Although the procedure is fairly new in the United States, the concept of living organ don
Medicine In America James Cassedy’s Medicine in America, A Short History takes a comprehensive look at medical progress in America from its colonial days to the present time. The book takes on five different themes in discussing medicine. First, it discusses the medical establishment, and how it develops over time. Second, it looks at the alternative to established medicine. Alternatives consist of any kind of medical practice outside the orthodox practice of the time. Third, Cassedy explores t
Massage Therapy Recently, the practice of massage therapy has grown remarkably in the United States. It has become more widely accepted as a medical practice by doctors as well as the general public. Massage is defined as: ...the systematic manual or mechanical manipulations of the soft tissues of the body by such movements as rubbing, kneading, pressing, rolling, slapping, and tapping, for therapeutic purposes such as promoting circulation of the blood and lymph, relaxation of muscles, relief
Music Therapy Music therapy is the prescribed use of music and musical interventions in order to restore, maintain, and improve emotional, physical, physiological, and spiritual health and well-being (Lindberg). So one finds the selections under the New Age/Relaxation section of the record store about as relaxing as water torture? Just because one\'s taste runs more to Sousa than to soothing doesn\'t mean one can\'t reap all these relaxation benefits music is supposed to have. Music therapy wor