Science

Perfume History The human use of scents, aromas and fragrances has its origins lost in ancient times. Why, when and how people first started to prepare them may never be known, but archeological findings, early written texts and oral tradition show that the history of aromas goes deep back in time. Early civilizations offered scent flowers, herbs and resins in worship of their Gods. When burned, some plants released stronger aromas and scented smoke fires became part of religious rituals, a mys
Physical Therapy What is there to debate? Several sources repeatedly convey similar information on the care that a physical therapist provides. The Handbook of Physical Therapy, written by Robert Shestack, Current Physical Therapy, a book by Malcolm Peat, and "A Future in Physical Therapy," an internet publication by The American Physical Therapy Association, have notably parallel information within them. However, small variations can be found in their writings. Physical therapy is defined as t
Placebos A placebo is defined as an inactive substance resembling a medication, given for psychological effect or as a control in evaluating a medicine believed to be active. However the placebo only fits this description under the restraints it has been given by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which refers to the placebo as an investigational new drug. In actuality, up until the present much of medicine was built on placebos. "Not very long ago, the rituals and symbols of healing consti
Reflexology The origins of Reflexology evidently reach back to ancient Egypt as evidenced by inscriptions found in the physicianís tomb at Saqqara in Egypt. The translation of the hieroglyphics are as follows: "Donít hurt me." The practitionerís reply:- " I shall act so you praise me. " We cannot determine the exact relationship between the ancient art as practiced by the early Egyptians and Reflexology as we know it today. Different forms of working the feet to effect health have been used all
Vegetarian Diet The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat can also be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have
Abortion And Murder On January 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court, in two separate decisions, Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton, declared that Congress and the states had to adopt a policy on abortion. Since then, abortion has been one of the most controversial issues in our country today. Every time the subject of abortion is raised, the same question always comes up: should people have the right to terminate an unborn child? The answer is no. No person should have the right to terminate an unborn c
Abortion Debate In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible. As our civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneva at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to be from the moment
Abortion Issues Abortion has been one the most controversial subjects in American history both socially and politically. Both sides have their points that they stand on. Though it looks like both sides will never come up with a solution to their problem it has split America in to two sides; pro - choice and pro - life. In January 22, 1973 U. S Supreme Court declared that a women had the " Fundamental Fight" to have an abortion, the ruling set off a vociferous and protracted battle marked by dem
Affirmative Action Considering the subject of affirmative action the following questions frequently are raised: Is there a clear understanding of affirmative action roles/goals? What are the pros/cons of these programs? What are the "loop holes" in the system? Does seniority play a role in affirmative action? Addressing these key questions may help us all in our daily routine, as administrators and/or potential administrator in the public/private sector. Affirmative action programs throughout t
Career Criminal The career criminal, or, more pointedly, those individuals who participate in criminal acts on a regular basis for both a central and constant source of income has, generally, a specific set of identifying factors which, while conclusive in laymen\'s terms, fail to meet the criteria necessary for scientific inquiry. While definitions exist as to what a career criminal is, the research methods employed in determining these definitions are a large point of contention for criminal
Cloning Banning Banning on human and organ cloning is posing a problem on those educated ones in academia. Researcher and scientist Dr. Ian Wilmut has successfully cloned a sheep, and has gathered from this experiment evidence that strongly proves that human and organ cloning could be performed Ė safely and effectively. Unfortunately, our government has almost immediately banned such cloning in this country. Did they realize the benefits of such a discovery? Perhaps they simply believe that it
Death Penalty During this class period today, seven adult men will be falsely accused of committing a serious crime, carrying a penalty of capital punishment. This means approximately 51,000 adult men are falsely accused of committing serious crimes each year. This figure is roughly the number of people who attended Super Bowl-Thirty-Three. Currently, there are 3,500 people on death row in thirty-eight states that support and carry out the death penalty while only twelve states have outlawed it
Death Penalty Is the Death Penalty Right or Wrong? Should we be able to execute people that have been convicted of murder or should we give them a chance to break out of jail and maybe kill other people. Well the Death Penalty has been around for a while ever since the Old West use to hang people for punishment. It is not cruel if you use the lethal injection but I could believe being electrocuted would hurt a little. Is the Death Penalty ethical or is it inhumane. Well some people can argue wh
Colgate In Argentina Colgate was founded in the United States in 1806 and for the first 100 years, its business focus was only there. However, in the very early 1900\'s, the Company began a very aggressive expansion program that led to the establishment of Colgate operations throughout the world. Today, Colgate-Palmolive is a $9 billion company, marketing its products in over 200 countries and territories under such internationally recognized brand names as Colgate, Palmolive, Ajax, Fab, and Me
Analytic Geometry Analytic geometry was brought fourth by the famous French mathematician Rene\' Descartes in 1637. Descartes did not start his studying and working with geometry until after he had retired out of the army and settled down. If not for Descartes great discovery then Sir Isaac Newton might not have ever invented the concept of calculus. Descartes concept let to calculus and Newton and G.W. Leibniz would not be know as well as they are today if it were not for the famous mathematic
Archimedes Archimedes was born in 287 BC in Syracuse, a Greek seaport colony in Sicily. Archimedesí father was Phidias. He was an astronomer; this is all we know about his father and we learn this from Archimedesí work, The Sandreckoner. Archimedes was educated in Alexandria, Egypt. Archimedesí friend, Heracleides, wrote a biography about him, but this work was lost. Some authors report that he visited Egypt and there invented a tool known as Archimedes\' screw. This is a pump, still used today
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene which is now in Libya in North Africa. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. Eratosthenes then spent some years studying in Athens. The library at Alexandria was planned by Ptolemy I Soter and the project came to fruition under
Fractals The videotape "Fractals" was narrated by a writer of science fiction, R.C. Clark, who is the creator of 2001 Space Odessy. Individuals interviewed, experts on the subject included professor Stuart, Dr. Michael Barnsley, Steven Hawkins, author of A Brief History in Time, and creator of the Mandelbrot set, Dr. Benoit Mandlebrot. These men introduced us to their insight of fractals, provided people with much new and fascinating information on this obscure topic, and left the audience with
Infinity Most everyone is familiar with the infinity symbol, the one that looks like the number eight tipped over on its side. Infinity sometimes crops up in everyday speech as a superlative form of the word many. But how many is infinitely many? How big is infinity? Does infinity really exist? You can\'t count to infinity. Yet we are comfortable with the idea that there are infinitely many numbers to count with; no matter how big a number you might come up with, someone else can come up with a
Hip Hop Hip-Hopís has lost its original goal of wanting to unite people, today it\'s a way to market violence. I. Hip-Hop started in the west Bronx in the early 1970s. A. Hip-Hop wasnít excepted mainstream until 1979. B. The first known Hip-Hop group was The Sugarhill Gang. II. As the 80s began more people became aware of the culture that was now known as Hip-Hop A. It started as a positive thing to unite underprivileged kids. 1. There was a song like "Stop the Violence." 2. Public Enemy and ot
Music History Music has been a great influence in the lives of many people through lyrics and rhythm. There are many different styles that can be performed by either a male or female. Music has been around for many years and is constantly changing. Music has been divided into six periods: Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Twentieth Century. Music is written in symbols that represent musical sounds. The system of written symbols is called Musical Notation. "The primary requirement o
Anaxamander With his discoveries, Anaxamander of Miletus attempted to bring the realm of the unreal to the world where common man could conceive it. As successor and pupil of Thales of Miletus, Anaxamander worked on the fields of geometry, natural science, and astrology. The culmination of his life attempted to define the indefinite or undetermined. He was the first to discover and apply the theory of the unlimited. For a philosopher of this time period, he had many radical ideas. Anaxamander b
Buddhist Cosmology Throughout history there have been many attempts to explain the origin and workings of our universe. Most every culture has their own cosmogony. Nearly every individual has his or her own idea of what our universe is. During our modern era of advanced scientific knowledge, we feel that we have a good grasp on how the universe works. We have our Chemistry and Physics, along with Mathematics, to examine the universe with. Any person educated in these fields will tell you that t
Egyptian Pyramids Who built the Egyptian pyramids? For centuries, the Egyptian Pyramids and the Sphinx have stood a silent testimony to a great and powerful civilization long since ground to dust. But behind the great walls of the Pyramids and this long lasting silence, mysteries are still unrevealed and the explanation of these mysteries is a set of theories based on observation and on the printed texts on the Pyramids walls. One great mystery was the one dealing with the building of the Pyram
Greek Mythology Greek Mythology, beliefs and ritual observances of the ancient Greeks, who became the first Western civilization about 2000 BC. It consists mainly of a body of diverse stories and legends about a variety of gods. Greek mythology had become fully developed by about the 700s BC. Three classic collections of myths-Theogony by the poet Hesiod and the Iliad and the Odyssey by the poet Homer-appeared at about that time. Greek mythology has several distinguishing characteristics. The G
Mysticism In this article I would like to bring the findings of my somewhat unusual but increasingly accepted field ó mysticismó to the discussion, for I think they may offer some helpful insights about consciousness. Why? When a biologist seeks to understand a complex phenomenon, one key strategy is to look to at it in its simplest form. Probably the most famous is the humble bacterium E. coli. Its simple gene structure has allowed us to understand much of the gene functioning of complex specie
Myth Origins The origin of the word myth seems to be a myth in itself. Myths have generally originated from a Greek history that used an oral tradition to explain events that occurred before the written word. Often supernatural beings or fictitious characters were used to explain popular ideas concerning phenomena\'s of nature or the history of people. The myths that were carried on from generation to generation were often very imaginative in an attempt to spark the interest of young listeners.
Abortion Ethics On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus\' life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a major factor in the question of the morality
Anaximander With his discoveries, Anaxamander of Miletus attempted to bring the realm of the unreal to the world where common man could conceive it. As successor and pupil of Thales of Miletus, Anaxamander worked on the fields of geometry, natural science, and astrology. The culmination of his life attempted to define the indefinite or undetermined. He was the first to discover and apply the theory of the unlimited. For a philosopher of this time period, he had many radical ideas. Anaxamander b
Animals And Humans 1. There is an enormous different between the life of humans and other animals. First of all, humans are clearly at the top of significance for the simple reason that they are at the top of food chain. This is what allows people to dictate society. Combine this with the fact that humans have the ability to reason, and it is clear that people have more of a significance. It is as simple as this, no other species as the ability to end the entire world with tools which they have
Aristotelian Nicomachean Ethics Achieving excellence in terms of Aristotle\'s "Nichomachean Ethics" Before actually focusing on the main details of Aristotle\'s Argument, we must pay careful attention to the opening remarks he makes in Book I about the nature of his inquiry. The first important point that he stresses is that the study of the character of human beings is dependent on what a human being is. Aristotle states that that a human is not a "man that lives in isolation, but a man that a
Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC.; with him came the birth of Western realism. He was a student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great (Founders, 1991). It is difficult to discuss the philosophies of Aristotle without bringing up those of his former tutor, Plato. Aristotle\'s philosophies diverted from Plato\'s, and led to Aristotle forming his own school, the Lyceum. After tutoring Alexander the Great for about five years, he founded the Lyceum in Athens, Greece (Wheelwright, 1983).
Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC and lived until 322 BC. He was a Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato being considered the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. When he was 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato\'s Academy. He stayed for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his named
Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide (or Euthanasia) is a topic undergoing serious debate. There exist two obvious and definite opinions regarding this controversy. The anti-euthanasia faction consist of: ≤ Conservative religious groups. They are often the same organizations that oppose access to abortion. ≤ Medical associations whose members are dedicated to saving and extending life, and feel uncomfortable helping people end their lives. ≤ Groups concerned with disabilities, which fear that eutha
Big Bang Theory 1. The most obvious unscientific theory that I can think of today, would be religion. Religion is possibly one of the biggest influences in our lives, and there is no scientific way to even prove that it exists. I asked a few friends of mine, who are religious, why they believe in a God. The first that I asked hemmed and hawed and when I finally had to threaten him to spit out an answer, he said, "I donít know." The next person I asked answered a little more intelligently by say
Cloning Issues I have observed in my nineteen years of living that almost everyone in this society strives to be the same or like the popular culture. The average person is very materialistic, and strives for an appealing physical appearance. Artificiality is common in the popular culture. For example, dying of hair color, inserting color contacts, getting lyposuction, implants or removal of flaws on the body is prevalent. I strongly oppose human cloning primarily because I believe that humans
Cloning Issues Most people panic when they hear the words "Human Cloning". Crazy thoughts run through their heads, imaginations run wild. They think of the world being run over by a million little Hitlerís. They think of people thinking exactly like one another, and that no person would be different. And for some reason because of cloning, the world, as we know it will cease to exist. Cloning to some people is even considered "evil." Most religious people believe that it is "Playing God", they
Cloning Shortly after the announcement that British scientists had successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today\'s society. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics that is, in their genes except for any differences caused by mutation. Ide
Computer Intellect A new issue has come about since the building of computers. But the idea behind it is not such a new issue, for as long ago as Plato and Aristotle, the idea of a mind was pondered about. With the up-and-coming technology, the idea of artificial intelligence has exploded. It is one that many fiction writers have prospered on. But how far away are they from the truth? Take the story of The Bicentennial Man by Isaac Asimov, written in 1976, when most of the population didnít know
Confucianism And Chuang-Tzu The brightest signs of art and thought in civilization often spring from turmoil, be it outer war or inner strife, as is definitely the case in ancient China. During one of these periods in transition of government and ruling class, two distinct philosophies sprang from the raging waters of Chinaís ever-cyclic river of war and rebuilding. These philosophies were the brain-children of two very notable individuals, Confucius and Chuang Tzu, both of whom saw the sufferi
Cosmogony What is cosmogony? Cosmogony can be defined as a study of the physical universe in terms of its originating time and space. In other words, cosmogony is the study of the universe and its origins. The origin and the nature of the universe have been one of the most debated topics throughout history. Both the scientific and theological communities have yet to ascertain a common ground on how the universe came into being and whether it was an act of "God" or merely a spontaneous and rando
Creation And Evolution Creationism vs. Evolution, the argument disputed by more scientists, more paleontologists and more everyday people than probably any other argument since the dawn of man. Who is right? Do the theories and evidence of evolutionists have the right answers or do the faith and facts of creationists hold the answers? What is creationism? "Creationism" is the idea that all forms of life, and particularly humans, were independently created by a willful act on the part of God or
Creation Science As Pseudoscience In every civilization throughout history, man has searched for the explanation to his existence. In ancient societyís people created origin myths. Every civilization had a unique myth. Some myths involved gods and others involved nature. Sometime around one thousand B.C. the longest standing creation myth was popularized. This creation myth is still in practice today, almost three thousand years later. The myth I am referring to is the Genesis recollection in th
Creationism Creationism is a religious metaphysical theory about the origin of the universe. It is not a scientific theory. Technically, creationism is not necessarily connected to any particular religion. It simply requires a belief in a Creator. Millions of Christians and non-Christians believe there is a Creator of the universe and that scientific theories such as the the theory of evolution do not conflict with belief in a Creator. However, fundamentalist Christians such as Ronald Reagan an
David Hume "I was from the beginning scandalised, I must own, with this resemblance between the Deity and human creatures." --Philo David Hume wrote much about the subject of religion, much of it negative. In this paper we shall attempt to follow Hume\'s arguments against Deism as Someone knowable from the wake He allegedly makes as He passes. This kind of Deism he lays to rest. Then, digging deeper, we shall try our hand at a critique of his critique of religion, of resurrecting a natural beli
Descartes Applied To Biology Descartes method of questioning what is real is a very important aspect of the world of science. I will show how this method of philosophy is crucial to the studies of biology. Descartes said that the only time that something is not doubted is when it is clear and distinctly true. This is the difference in science between theory and fact. In order for something to be clear and distinct it must be a fact. DNA was discovered on April 25,1953 by James Watson and Franci
Descartes On Metaphysics Descartesí Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is really real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowle
Divisibility Argument This paper will discuss the dualismís Divisibility Argument. This argument relies on Leibnizís Law and uses a different property to prove the distinctness of brain states of mental states. Mary, who is a materialist, presents several objections to that argument. Her main objection corresponds to the first/third-person approach. She believes that Dave presents that argument only from the first-person approach, which is introspection, and totally disregards the third-person
Dualism I believe that the popular or "ghost in the machine" form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central p
Evolution And Creation Evolution versus creation has been a debate lasting decades upon decades in the United States and around the world. The mock trial held during class, however, was not to prove one view as right and the other wrong. Rather, the focus of the trial, from the view of the prosecution, was simply to prove that creation should not be taught as a science in schools. The prosecution and the defense were each allowed four witnesses. A fifth grade science teacher, a preacher, a worl