Animal Farm
Many great works have been inspired by events in history. George Orwell’s

Animal Farm provides an unusual outlook on the Russian Revolution and its
leaders by using animals to represent their human counterparts. Orwell attacks
communist society and points out weaknesses in its government officials. He
calls for a close examination of the treatment of Russian citizens and questions
whether they have any rights at all. Orwell was careful in his designation of
animals in Animal Farm, especially in regards to the power reserved for the
pigs. Animal Farm uses the perfect combination of animal symbolism to relate the
occurrences on Manor Farm to actual historical events of the Russian Revolution
through the use of such characters as Napoleon, Snowball, Squealer, and Boxer.

Napoleon is undoubtedly the most devout and corrupt character in the novel. His
domineering and brutal methods of ruling the farm draw strange but clear
comparison to his human counterpart Joseph Stalin. Napoleon is described as "a
large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not
much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way" (Orwell 25).

He Ingram 2 dominates the political scene on Manor Farm, controls the education
of the youth, and is a brilliant strategist when it comes to rallying support
for his cause. Napoleon, throughout the novel, fails to present an idea that is
original, but tends to take credit for the ideas of others (Meyers 108). Like

Stalin, Napoleon is not a good speaker and is certainly not as clever as his
political opponent. However, he makes good use of his resident"smooth-talker," Squealer, to insure that his subjects see the purpose of
his twisted commands, while those who oppose him are merely torn apart by dogs
that Napoleon reared to protect him and distribute justice as he sees fit in
much the same way that Stalin used the KGB. Napoleon relies on flashy displays
of power like the firing of the shotgun and fancy titles such as "Terror of

Mankind," "Protector of the Sheepfold," and "Fountain of Happiness" to
feed his hunger for power and invoke the other animal’s support at the deepest
emotional level (Smyer 86). Yet throughout his brutal reign as sole leader of
the farm, Napoleon maintains a harsh regiment of work that tax the bodies of
every animal under his command. Only Napoleon and the other pigs enjoy the
fruits of their labor while the others are left to exist with minimal food

Ingram 3 and only their pride to sustain them through their slave-like lives.

Communism is not as corrosive to Napoleon as much as the ambitious accumulation
of power (Hammond 162). Nonetheless, this leader’s Stalin-like qualities make
for a harsh life for those around him and provide the farm with poverty and
inequality. Unlike Napoleon, Snowball exhibits a desire to help his fellow
animals, making him Napoleon’s greatest opponent and only obstacle. Snowball
is also modeled after a Russian leader. His description of being "a more
vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive" (Orwell 25)
makes him the perfect representation of Leon Trotsky. "Snowball embodies an
expanding, dynamic view of reality; his social fabric will be permeable to the
dynamic energies of an ever-changing technology" (Smyer 85). His good
intentions are evident to all of the animals, and his means of assuring a better
life consists of a more humane work schedule and even a retirement plan for
elderly animals. Laws are also established which are conducive to the overall
ideas and fundamentals of Animalism—summed up by "Four legs Good, Two legs

Bad" (Orwell 40). Orwell’s view of Snowball’s role in this society is

Ingram 4 best summed up by the following: Snowball also busied himself with
organizing the other animals into what he called Animal Committees.... He formed
the Egg production Committee for the hens, the Clean Tails Committee for the
cows, the Wild Comrades Re-education Committee...and various others, besides
instituting classes in reading and writing. (Orwell 39) Snowball is a scholar of
many areas and even studies military strategy which helps him lead the animals
to victory at the Battle of Cowshed where Farmer Jones attempts to regain his
farm (Meyers 109). Snowball’s dynamic speeches and innovative ideas give
insight to his superior intelligence, which allows him to maintain control of

Animal Farm until he is chased away by Napoleon’s dogs. Trotsky also possessed
this same intellect and speaking ability and fell victim to Lenin’s KGB agents
who forced him to flee of hid life. After Snowball’s exile, Napoleon
diminishes the population’s faith in their former leader by accusing him of
treason and blaming all of