Although George Braque (May 13, 1882
- Aug. 31, 1963) was one of the most influential painters of the twentieth
century his name is all but forgotten. He has received little credit for his
efforts towards the creation of analytic cubism. Many art historians believe
that his prestigious role as father of analytic cubism was cut short because of

Picasso’s fame. Many arguments have arisen asking the question: "Who is the
father of cubism?" There is no doubt that Picasso started the spark which
ignited modern art movements with the creation of "Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.."

But, soon after Picasso created this work Braque created "Houses at

L’Estaque." This painting started the analytic phase of cubism. With this in
mind, it can be stated that Picasso is the father of modern twentieth century
art and Braque is the father of analytic cubism. George Braque is one of the
most influential painters of the twentieth century. He co-worked with Picasso to
create cubism and helped spark all the future art movements of the twentieth
century. As well as this, he was the influence that made Picasso the fame that
he was to become. Braque has never received the recognition he should have
because of Picasso’s fame, but his personal position in the art community was
high and his involvement with World War One was a major culprits that aided in
his downfall in artistic popularity. "Who the father of cubism?", has always
been a question that has pondered the minds of art historians and scholars. It
is clear though that both Braque and Picasso played their prominent role in the
creation of cubism. Picasso provided, with his proto-Cubist
"Demoiselles," the initial liberating shock. But it was Braque,
largely because of his admiration for Cezanne, who provided much of the early
tendency toward geometrical forms. Braque’s early tendency towards geometric
form and cubes was the spark which ignited the minds of all future cubist
artists; including Picasso. If there is one painting that is possibly one of the
most influential images regarding cubism in the twenty first century it is

George Braque’s "Houses at L’Estaque." During the summer of 1908 in
southern France, Braque painted a series of radically innovative canvases, of
which the most celebrated is "Houses at L’Estaque"; in this painting we
can see the slab volumes, sober coloring, and warped perspective typical of the
first part of what has been called the analytical phase of Cubism. This painting
was shown in a show at Kahnweiler\'s gallery. It provoked from the Paris critic

Louis Vauxcelles a remark about "cubes" that soon blossomed into a
stylistic label. This painting was the painting that gave cubism its name.

Vauxcelles’s remarked about the canvas being full of small cubes, and this
comment was the spark that constituted the name of the movement. Braque
undertook Vauxcelles criticisms, much like other movements of the past, and used
it for the name of the movement. ( Flam, 144) In "Houses at L\'Estaque" all
the sensuous elements of Braque\'s previous years were banished. Color has been
reduced to a severe combination of browns, dull greens and grays. The curving
rhythms have given way to a system of vertical and horizontal, broken only by
the forty-five degree diagonals of roof-tops and trees. All details have been
eliminated and the foliage of the trees reduced to a minimum to reveal the
geometric severity of the houses. These are continued upwards almost to the top
of the canvas so that the eye is allowed no escape beyond them. The picture
plane is further emphasized by the complete lack of aerial perspective (the far
houses are, if anything, darker and stronger in value than the foreground
house), and by the fact that occasionally contours are broken and forms opened
up into each other. There is no central vanishing point; indeed in many of the
houses all the canons of traditional perspective are completely broken. (Flam

145) Although Braque was the first to create a cubist work, it is well known
that cubism was a combined team effort that was created through the genius
partnership of both Braque and Picasso. It is impossible to say which of the two
was the principal stylistic inventor of the revolutionary new style, for at the
height of their collaboration they exchanged ideas almost daily and produced
pictures so alike as to be practically indistinguishable. Examples of these
similarities are the various nude pictures of women that both Picasso and Braque
created during the first years of analytic cubism. If we compare George

Braque’s "Large Nude", to Picasso’s Three women; it is easy to see that
they must have collaborated many