Computer Upgrade

With increasing popularity of computer games, and multimedia home PC users often
need an unexpensive computer system upgrade. By building a custom computer one
is able to combine componenets, and operating system to provide maximal gaming
performance. Computers are often called number manipulators, because of their
ability to run millions of mathematical operations per second (White 43).

Computers use binary system of numbers, which allows them to operate system of
microscopic switches called transistors found inside of computer chips. Binary
system is defined as counting system that uses two digits one and zero (Gookin

49). A transistor is a basic building block of microchips; transistors are
combined in formations called logic gates (White 39). "Transistor can only
create binary information: one if current passes through or zero if current does
not, to work with transistors"(White 39). Computer software uses Boolean
logic, which is based on selecting true or false values used in computer
programming (White 39). All personal computers have BIOS, which is an acronym
for Basic Input Output System. The BIOS runs every time the computer is started,
and it basically tells the computer how to act (White 19). The BIOS is a part of
the boot up process, or a complex set of operations checking hardware that
components are working properly. Besides BIOS and several other operations there
is power–on self-test - POST being ran. POST test runs at the start up, and if
it finds an error, it sends a warning message (White 5). Central processing unit
– CPU is the most important part of the personal computer, all other
components work as a bridge to CPU (White 59). The speed of the processor is
usually defined by using units called megahertz (MHz, also million frequency
waves per second). CPUs are generally divided into two categories- CISC and

RISC. CISC – complex instruction set computing, uses many small instructions
to carry out a single operations. CISC is a standard in today’s processors.

RISC – reduced instruction set computing, uses less complicated instructions
with simpler design. RISC microprocessors are cheaper, they produce less heat,
and they are generally smaller in size compared to CISC. With less heat and
smaller size RISC processors have great advantage in reaching higher frequencies
with less danger of overheating. The major disadvantage and also reason why RISC
microprocessors are not widely used, is less compatibility with available
software. The earlier programs were written for CISC chips. In order to reach
maximal speed, and compatibility the major manufacturers of microprocessors such
as Intel, use some advantages of RISC technology, to improve the performance of
their CISC compatible microprocessors (White 55). Computer microprocessor is the
most important part of the PC, but it can not work by it self. One of the few
primary components is BUS, also called a highway of the computer. BUS transports
data among the processor, random access memory, and hard disk. Speed of the BUS
depends on the type of motherboard where it is installed (White 119). Random
access memory- RAM is also attached to the motherboard- base of all the
components, but unlike BUS, RAM can be easily removed and changed. Random access
memory works as a staging area for the central processing unit (White 43).

Capacity of random access memory is very important for the performance of a
computer. In case there is not enough RAM the software can create space on the
hard drive to be used as temporary operating memory (White 31). Random means
that any part of the memory can be accessed at any time, it is not necessary to
read all of the memory to find one location. RAM is usually fast, temporary
memory where data is saved until removed or power is turned off on the computer
(White 43). "A hard drive is the workaholic of a PC system."(White 87)) It
is based on using magnetic plates; spinning at extreme speeds up to 7,200
rotations a minute, which are 120 spins every second. Even with extreme speed
and microscopic accuracy modern hard drives are unlikely to fail. The hard disk
is a combination of electronic and mechanical portions, which makes it the one
of the slowest parts of the computer (White 87). A graphic card is usually
plugged into one of the expansion slots, which are metallic contacts on the
motherboard (White 119). One of the most common expansion slots is PCI –
peripheral components interconnect. PCI are most commenly white slots used to
attach a graphic or sound card, also modem or network card (White 120). Latest
expansion slot used for