Computers And Automation

What is a computer? A Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of
instructions, or program, and then carry out this program by performing
calculations on numerical data or by compiling and correlating other forms of
information. Thesis Statement:- The modern world of high technology could not
have come about except for the development of the computer. Different types and
sizes of computers find uses throughout society in the storage and handling of
data, from secret governmental files to banking transactions to private
household accounts. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing through
the techniques of automation, and they have enhanced modern communication
systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research and applied
technology, from constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow's
weather reports, and their use has in itself opened up new areas of conjecture.

Database services and computer networks make available a great variety of
information sources. The same advanced techniques also make possible invasions
of privacy and of restricted information sources, but computer crime has become
one of the many risks that society must face if it would enjoy the benefits of
modern technology. Imagine a world without computers. That would mean no proper
means of communicating, no Internet, no video games. Life would be extremely
difficult. Adults would have to store all their office work paper and therefore
take up an entire room. Teenagers would have to submit course-works and projects
hand-written. All graphs and diagrams would have to be drawn neatly and
carefully. Youngsters would never have heard of 'video-games' and will have to
spend their free time either reading or playing outside with friends. But thanks
to British mathematicians, Augusta Ada Byron and Charles Babbage, our lives are
made a lot easier. Later, on my investigation about the growth of computers over
the decades, I will be talking about types of computers, how and when computers
were first being developed, the progress it made, computers at present and plans
for the future. In types of computers, I will be talking about analogue and
digital computers and how they function. In the development of computers, I will
be mentioning about the very first electronic calculator and computer. Under
progress made, I will only be mentioning about circuits. For computers of the
present, I will be talking about networking, telecommunications and games. And
finally, as for planning for the future, I will mention about new and recent
ideas, research and development of new computers heard and talked about in
newspapers and on television. I. MAIN TYPES OF COMPUTERS There are two main
types of computers which are in use today, analog and digital computers,
although the term computer is often used to mean only the digital type. Analog
computers exploit the mathematical similarity between physical
interrelationships in certain problems, and employ electronic or hydraulic
circuits to simulate the physical problem. Digital computers solve problems by
performing sums and by dealing with each number digit by digit. Hybrid computers
are those which contain elements of both analog and digital computers. They are
usually used for problems in which large numbers of complex equations, known as
time integrals, are to be computed. Data in analog form can also be fed into a
digital computer by means of an analog- to-digital converter, and the same is
true of the reverse situation. a) What are analog computers and how do they
work? The analog computer is an electronic or hydraulic device that is designed
to handle input in terms of, for example, voltage levels or hydraulic pressures,
rather than numerical data. The simplest analog calculating device is the slide
rule, which employs lengths of specially calibrated scales to facilitate
multiplication, division, and other functions. In a typical electronic analog
computer, the inputs are converted into voltages that may be added or multiplied
using specially designed circuit elements. The answers are continuously
generated for display or for conversion to another desired form. b) What are
digital computers and how do they work? Everything that a digital computer does
is based on one operation: the ability to determine if a switch, or
"gate," is open or closed. That is, the computer can recognise only
two states in any of its microscopic circuits: on or off, high voltage or low
voltage, or-in the case of numbers-0 or 1. The speed at which the computer
performs this simple act, however, is what makes it a marvel of modern
technology. Computer speeds are measured in megahertz, or millions of cycles per
second. A computer with a "clock speed" of 10 MHz-a fairly
representative speed for a microcomputer-is capable of