Costa Del Sol
It is possible that the Neolithic revolution, the discovery of agriculture the
passage of nomadic to sedentary peoples, reached Europe by way of Africa through
what is known today as Andalusia. This historical center of influence, an east -
west displacement, from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic began with a
revolution that introduced the usage of metals and the arrival of colonizers
from the east. A confluence of fertile lands, of metallurgy and fishing
activities took place in this westernmost area that the Tartars once inhabited.

This mysterious civilization that lived in the southern Iberian peninsula since
the bronze ages, established the first known monarchy in western Europe. The

Tartars, an agricultural and cattle raising people, also worked the gold mines
while their ships traded with Great Britain from the west and received the

Phoenicians from the east. This marked the beginning of a complex geographical
position between two oceans and two continents. Rome took up residence on these
shores after realizing that this region could become the open door for a threat
from Cartage. Roman legions appeared for the first time in the 3rd century BC.

The exuberant province of "Bética" would become for the next seven
centuries part of the great civilized world, contributing to the empire
materials such as metals, wine, oil, wheat, philosophers, writers and the first
two emperors born outside of the Italic peninsula.: Trajano and Adriano. Other
peoples appeared from the north. From the shores of the Rin descended the

Vandals in 411 AD. They settled in the valley of the Guadalquivir river and in
northern Africa and for half a century united the shores of the two continents.

Before being expelled by the Visigoths they had given a new name to the region
of Europe: Vandalucía. Since the arrival in 711 of Islam this region enjoyed
wonderful times. The Caliphate of Córdoba during many years was the most
sophisticated state in all of Europe. The Arabs contributed new techniques to
agriculture, botany and science, poetry and intellectual development during a
period of eight centuries. Their political breakdown was taken advantage of by
the Christian Kingdoms from the north of the peninsula accelerating the capture
of the Iberian peninsula. In 1236 Córdoba fell. Sevilla followed in 1248. The
last bastion, the Kingdom of Granada, was conquered by the Catholic Kings in

1492. that same year Columbus set sail from the Andalusian port of Palos in

Huelva, to discover America. The center of global economic and political
movement was displaced. An Andalusian town took notice of this crucial moment
achieving its greatest glory shortly afterwards for the following 150 years.

Known as the spot where "the heart of Europe beats", Sevilla became
the neurological center of the Spanish empire. Her port received ships loaded
with gold and silver from America, and from there minted coins were circulated
throughout other European nations. A little later Cádiz would continue this

Andalusian leading role in its relations with the Indies. Sanlúcar de Barrameda,
a neighboring village became the port from where the first round the world
voyage was initiated. Romantic travelers would later recall such splendors with
archeological remains of demolished towers, hidden patios in ancient homes and
stately palaces. The myth of figures such as Carmen and the figure of Don Juan,
generous bandits, brave bullfighters and oriental exoticism arose; images
constructed by foreign eyes that today still endure. Recent Andalusian history
is tied to a turbulent 19th century that started off with the War of

Independence and the approval of the first Spanish Constitution in the courts of

Cádiz in 1812. Efforts to modernize and industrialize the economy were marked
by massive exploitations of mineral resources, and a remarkable increase in
exports of wine and oil. These changes were strongly resisted by an economy
deeply rooted in agriculture practices. The 20th-century arrived with proposals
of regeneration and optimism during the 20s. however social instability
persisted and led to the start of the Civil War in 1936 and its consequences.

After the brilliant economic and social transformations of the 60s and 70s,
democracy was established and Andalusia became an autonomous region in 1981,
with the Junta de Andalucía as the maximum governing body and a Parliament
acting as the main instrument representing a population of close to six million.

Arts and Culture The age old millennial history of Andalusia has left behind a
vast artistic legacy. The Alhambra of Granada, the Mezquita of Córdoba, or the

Giralda of Sevilla are monumental milestones of mankind. Most other cities and
towns are also represented with the best moments of Andalusian art left over
long periods