Criminal Justice

This paper will describe my understanding of the text and of the lectures
provided in the class. Unlike most classes, where I understood only my view of
the text, this class was geared so each student would understand each otherís
view. 3 An organization is a collective that has some boundary and internal
structure that engages in activities related to some complex set of goals.

Members of organizations attempt to meet their psychological, ego and emotional
needs within the organization. Criminal justice organizations are particularly
unique compared to other public or private sector organizations because of the
governmental granted authority. Management within these organizations can be
defined as the process by which the elements of a group are integrated,
coordinated and/or utilized so as to efficiently achieve the organizationís
objectives. In Law enforcement and correctional organizations, the front line
officers manage people. This is especially true in the control of inmates. In
these organizations, we must consider the hierarchy to be inverted. The front
line officers, not limited to sergeants and lieutenants, influence the direction
of the organization. Leaders in criminal justice establish direction by
developing a vision of the future, align people through shared values and
vision, and motivate and inspire people to move them toward the shared vision.

Leaders will challenge existing processes and systems, focus on the future of
the basic assumptions, values, and beliefs and create the basis for structural
or programmatic change. 4 Conversely, leadership in corrections is often more
complex. Prison and jail overcrowding, along with the increasing number of
geriatric, mentally ill and an influx of younger and more violent inmates
requires the managers of the organization to increase the training and
motivation of line officers in order to deal with problems. In law enforcement
agencies, leaderships must recognize the need for more community policing
programs. These criminal justice organizations must look inside themselves and
adapt change in order to meet their goals and objectives. The goals of
organizations not only provide direction but also serve as constraints or
limits. An example in the criminal justice model would be for an agency to make
more arrests to meet the public outcry, but also to insure the judicial and
correctional systems handle the increase in business. Organizations have very
common structural dimensions. But some models are different, such as centralized
and decentralized. In the centralized hierarchy of organizations, the decisions
or personnel actions, planning, formulation of policies and procedures,
adjudication of conflicts and other significant issues are made from the top. In
decentralized organizations, the decision on these major issues is routinely
made throughout the organization. Whether an organization is centralized or
decentralized mostly depends on the type of agency and the beliefs of the top
managers. This decision depends on the expertise of all the managers and the
staff personnel. 5 Mission statements, if properly understood and accepted by
organized personnel, is the framework by which an organization will operate. A
mission statement can be defined as a statement or description of an
organizationís common purpose and continuing purpose for existing
responsibility of itís client or constituents, at least by implicating itís
ideology, values and operationís principals. An example of a mission statement
by a business may be: (1) Quality comes first (2) Customers are the focus of
everything we do. (3) Continuous improvement is essential to everything we do.
(4) Employee involvement is our way of life. (5) Dealers and suppliers are our
partners. (6) Integrity is never compromised. An example of a criminal justice
organization may be: " The mission of the department is to safely incarcerate
convicted felons; to keep inmates secure, safe from physical and psychological
harm and deterioration; and And to provide inmates with opportunities for a
successful, crime-free reentry into Into society, while providing a safe, secure
and stress-free work environment for Staff." Even though, both are different
types of mission statements; both have one thing in common Ė "Quality."

Mission statements can drive policy, procedures and the different structures of
organizations, whether public or private. 6 Communication can be define as glue
for organizations. It will create a coordinated effort to achieve attainment of
goals and objectives. Poor communication, however, can result in many management
problems for it. If directions are not clear and well communicated, subordinates
will inadvertently disobey the meaning of the directive. Managers must be sure
when a directive is not followed if the employee was wrong or if the directive
to the employee was poorly communicated. A directive, whether spoken or written,
is one person sending information to another. This process if referred to as
encoding and decoding. Words are our most familiar means of sending messages to
others. However,