Farm Subsidies
Subsidies are payments, economic concessions, or privileges given by the
government to favor businesses or consumers. In the 1930s, subsidies were
designed to favor agriculture. John Steinbeck expressed his dislike of the farm
subsidy system of the United States in his book, The Grapes of Wrath. In that
book, the government gave money to farms so that they would grow and sell a
certain amount of crops. As a result, Steinbeck argued, many people starved
unnecessarily. Steinbeck examined farm subsidies from a personal level, showing
how they hurt the common man. Subsidies have a variety of other problems, both
on the micro and macro level, that should not be ignored. Despite their
benefits, farm subsidies are an inefficient and dysfunctional part of our
economic system. The problems of the American farmer arose in the 1920s, and
various methods were introduced to help solve them. The United States still
disagrees on how to solve the continuing problem of agricultural overproduction.

In 1916, the number of people living on farms was at its maximum at 32,530,000.

Most of these farms were relatively small (Reische 51). Technological advances
in the 1920's brought a variety of effects. The use of machinery increased
productivity while reducing the need for as many farm laborers. The industrial
boom of the 1920s drew many workers off the farm and into the cities. Machinery,
while increasing productivity, was very expensive. Demand for food, though,
stayed relatively constant (Long 85). As a result of this, food prices went
down. The small farmer was no longer able to compete, lacking the capital to buy
productive machinery. Small farms lost their practicality, and many farmers were
forced to consolidate to compete. Fewer, larger farms resulted (Reische 51).

During the Depression, unemployment grew while income shrank. "An extended
drought had aggravated the farm problem during the 1930s (Reische 52)."

Congress, to counter this, passed price support legislation to assure a profit
to the farmers. The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 allowed
the government to limit acreage use for certain soil-depleting crops. The

Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 allowed the government to set the
minimum price and amount sold of a good at the market. The Agricultural

Adjustment Act of 1938, farmers were given price supports for not growing crops.

These allowed farmers to mechanize, which was necessary because of the scarcity
of farm labor during World War II (Reische 52). During World War II, demand for
food increased, and farmers enjoyed a period of general prosperity (Reische 52).

In 1965, the government reduced surplus by getting farmers to set aside land for
soil conservation (Blanpied 121). The Agricultural Act of 1970 gave direct
payments to farmers to set aside some of their land (Patterson 129). The 1973
farm bill lowered aid to farmers by lowering the target income for price
supports. The 1970s were good years for farmers. Wheat and corn prices ripled,
land prices doubled, and farm exports outstripped imports by twenty-four billion
dollars (Long 88). Under the Carter administration, farm support was minimized.

Competition from foreign markets, like Argentina, lowered prices and incomes
(Long 88). Ronald Reagan wanted to wean the farm community from government
support. Later on in his administration, though, he started the Payments In Kind
policy, in which the government paid farmers not to grow major crops. Despite
these various efforts, farms continue to deal with the problems that rose in the

1920s. Farm subsidies seem to have benefits for the small farmer. "Each
year since 1947, there has been a net out-migration of farm people (Reische

53)." American farm production has tripled since 1910 while employment has
fallen eighty percent (Long 82). Small family farms have the lowest total family
incomes (Long 83). Farming is following a trend from many small farms to a few
large farms. Competition among farmers has increased supply faster than demand.

New seed varieties, better pest control, productive machinery, public
investments in irrigation and transportation, and better management will
increase farm output. The resulting oversupply of farm products, which creates a
low profit margin, drives smaller farms out of business. Smaller farms lack the
capital and income to buy the machinery they need to compete with larger farms
(Long 85). Many see this tendency towards consolidation and mechanization of
farms to be harmful to the United States in the long run, and they see subsidies
as a way of achieving a social desire to preserve the family farm. "If the
family farm represents anything, it's a very intimate and fundamental
relationship between people and resources (MacFadyen 138)." Fewer farms
mean fewer jobs and a higher concentration of wealth. Ten 30,000-acre