Geopolitics

Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to
politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of
spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions,
and transactions. The term \'Geopolitics\' has originally invented, in 1899, by a

Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to
signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the
concept of \'geopolitics\' itself is a considerably difficult task because
definition of geopolitics tends to changes as historical periods of time and
structures of world order change. Therefore, there have been numerous ways of
interpreting the term and arguments on them all through the history. In this
essay, I intend to examine how geopolitics has influenced on international
relations and how it has evolved using well-known geopoliticians\' theories in a
chronological order: Imperialist, Cold War, and New World Order. Imperialist

Geopolitics In early 20th century, geopolitics was a form of power or knowledge
concerned with promoting states expansionism and securing empires. It was a time
characterized by colonial expansionism abroad and industrial modernization at
home. This is also the time when natural supremacy of a certain race or the
state has considerably prevailed. The most historically and geographically fated
imperialist rivalry of the period was that of between British Empire and the
rising imperial aspirations of the German state in Europe. In order to
investigate the geopolitical tension between them, the geopolitical writings of
the British geographer Halford Mackinder and of the German geopolitician Karl

Haushofer have to be thoroughly examined. In addition, it is also needed to
examine the view of the far side across the Atlantic, the United States that
emerged as a significant player on world\'s stage later on. First of all, the
starting point for almost all discussions of geopolitics is Sir Halford

Mackinder, a member of the British Parliament who wrote "The Geographic

Pivot of History" in 1904. He addressed the importance in the history of
geopolitics for three reasons in his work; for its god\'s eye global view; for
its division of the globe into vast swaths of history, and for its sweeping
story of geography\'s conditioning influence on the course of history and
politics. First, he argues that "Geopolitics is a new way of seeing
international politics as a unified worldwide scene" and adopts a god\'s eye
global view which looks down on what he calls "the stage of the whole
world": For the first time we can perceive something of the real proportion
of features and events on the stage of the whole world and may seek a formula
which shall express certain aspects, at any rate, of geographical causation in
history. In this sentence, \'we\' implies the geopolitical experts, educated and
privileged white men who can perceive the real political features. This sentence
shows all the basic elements of imperialist geopolitics, such as the divine eye
gaze on the world, only experts can perceive the real and the desire to reveal
laws to explain all of history. However, this view has been criticized for the
reason that imperialists only see within the structures of meaning provided by
their socialization into certain backgrounds, intellectual contexts and
political culture and beliefs. Second, he suggests the map of "The Natural

Seats of Power". To illustrate his thesis geographically, Mackinder labels
enormous tracts of territory with simple identities like "pivot area."

He eliminates the tremendous geographical diversity and specificity of places on
earth. Difference becomes sameness. Geographical heterogeneity becomes
geopolitical homogeneity. Third, he argues "the geographical causation of
history" in the application of the sweeping theory. At the centre of this
theory shows the relationship between physical geography and transportation
technology. Until the end of nineteenth century, sea power was the supreme, but
by then, railroads were making it possible to move large armies quickly over
vast land areas. Mackinder wanted his government, which had achieved glory as a
sea power, to be prepared for the rise of a land power, obviously Germany at
that time. In his famous "heartland theory", he renamed Euro-Asia,
"the world island" and the "pivot area", "the
heartland". Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the

Heartland commands the world island; Who rules the world island commands the
world. According to his simple strategic argument, what must be prevented is

German expansionism in Eastern Europe and a German alliance with the Soviet

Union for the time. In spite of his effort, his idea had a little impact on

British foreign policy. The reason is said that his way of interpreting human
history is too simplistic and far geographically deterministic, and he failed to
aware of the emergence of revolutionary air power in