And Cultures By Thomas Sowell
"History and Cultures" by Thomas Sowell surveys many different
cultures and explains why cultures have differences in productivity, income,
wealth, education, occupation and industry. A reason for these differences is
due primary to geography, rather than to the individual or ethnic group. History
has proven that because of geography that no one society has developed equally
and that the size of a person's cultural world will influence how far a person
or an ethnic group can develop, technologically and culturally. Immigrants can
thrive almost everywhere because they must. As outsiders immigrants tend to work
harder than natives, starting with most menial jobs. Japanese-born farmers
achieved eight times more out put per acre than native-born farmers. Despite an
immigrant's humble origins, they help nations to succeed and prosper. The
majority of benefits that come from immigrants without credentials are those
people who don't have much to recommend to society them except to strive for a
better life. Many countries show that general populations become better off
through markets than through government. Reviled by native Americans for
clinging to their culture,immigrants have launched vast business enterprises,
which include household names such as, Bausch and Lomb, Weyerhauser, Chrysler,

Steinway, Wurlitzer, Hershey, and Heinz. Another reason why some ethnic groups
tend to excel in another society is because they conform to the norm of their
newfound social group and they find approval. This is mainly blamed on their new
society. Foreign-born people have made long vital contributions to other nations
throughout history, including military matters; they receive little or no help
from governments. In producing military technology, immigrants bought with them
technology or cannons to China, Spain, and Russia, among others, and manned the

United States as being the first in nuclear power. Immigrants that have become
involved in politics usually have been representatives of broader political
realms rather than ethnic leaders. These immigrants are ambassadors to their
ethic country. Migration has been a part of history for many centuries. When an
immigrant or an ethnic group migrates to another geographic location, their
cultural patterns do not disappear but remains with them. Culture does not only
shape what we do but it demonstrates shared values, beliefs, behavior, and
material objects that govern a person's way of life. Cultures are strategies to
meet human needs. History has shown that ethnic groups or individuals have
prospered better outside of their culture than existing within their own
culture. The differences among these cultures are values and beliefs that affect
cultural development. The inter-group differences that rise from poverty to
prosperity are between the doers and the do-nots. Cultures do not only compete
against each other but they also compete within their own societies. Most
competitions will result in winners and losers but most of all competitions will
result in a higher standard of living. Cultures compete at many different
levels, but one method that cultures compete is warfare. The conquest of a
country will determine what laws, language and customs that the natives of that
country will adhere to. Warfare is not the only way that cultures compete.

Cultures also compete in practical ways to serve a better purpose for humanity,
from growing food to discovering a cure for cancer. Migration has its ups and
downs in another society. Immigrants have brought with them added disease and
crime. During the late twentieth century the United States had several diseases
that had become nearly extinct within the American population, but some of these
diseases re-introduced themselves when immigrants entered into the country. Some
of these diseases are tuberculosis, leprosy, measles, cholera, and malaria.

Crime among the different cultures in another society is mainly because of the
different backgrounds, priorities, and religions. Immigration does not only help
with the development of a country but it can also dissolve a country. Countries
have made considerable efforts in preserving other foreign cultures and their
languages within the host country. In the United States many immigrants are
entitled to preferential treatment under the affirmative action. Affirmative
action is intended to take a wrong that was done in the past and make it a right
in the present. Programs such as affirmative action has increased anti-immigrant
feelings among U.S citizens in which has resulted in potentially explosive
conflicts between natives and immigrants. History does not only offer an outline
for the present but it does offer examples and insights to the future.

Migrations have played a very valuable roll in the economic, productivity,
income, wealth, and education developments of a country. Nevertheless, each
culture needs another culture in order to advance in society and to preserve