Throughout time more powerful countries have extended their influence over
weaker countries and then colonized those countries to expand their own power.

Imperialism causes the stronger countries to grow and become nations or even
empires. There are many examples throughout European history of nations
enveloping weaker countries and increasing their own wealth and power to form
strong nation-states and even empires. Through imperialism one culture is
invading another culture and most of the time the European colonialists are not
thinking about the effects this invasion might have on the natives of that land.

Problems caused by imperialism have prevailed to this day. Imperialism caused a
breakdown of the previous cultures and lifestyles that the natives had followed.

The European imperialism caused many of the now prevalent ethnic rivalries that
can be found in northern India, parts of Asia, and parts of Africa. "Africa
and much of the developing world have been struggling for nearly half a century
to come to terms with grinding ethnic and tribal rivalries that remain, in a
way, one of the most enduring legacies of their colonial past." In many
cases of European imperialism, the European colonialists would pick a favored
minority in one of their colonies to govern their colony locally and with this
priority came assurance of the best jobs and favored treatment. This caused a
sort of rivalry between that minority and the majority of natives who were not
given this priority. Resentment towards these favored minorities grows and after
the country achieves independence the popular resentment can turn to violence.

An example of this is the Sikhs in India. The Sikhs created the powerful state
of Punjab in 1800, which became a threat to British-controlled India and after
two years of war Britain annexed the Punjab in 1849. The Sikhs were loyal to the

British. In return for that loyalty, during the Sepoy Mutiny the British gave
them preferential land grants. Throughout British rule, the Sikhs gained wealth
and a great reputation as soldiers and policemen. After independence, they lost
all of their special privileges and found their state divided between India and

Pakistan. This followed with a bitter war against the Muslims in 1965, which
forced the Sikhs to migrate from their homeland of Punjab to India. This
followed a year of extreme agitation between the Muslims and the Sikhs that led

Indian government to create Punjab as a single Punjabi-speaking state in 1966.

It remains to this day the home of most of India\'s 16 million Sikhs. Another
example can be seen the Tutsi race. The Tutsi were used to locally rule their
lands of Rwanda and Burundi. Throughout their native lands they were assured the
best jobs and favored treatment, which included education. After Rwanda gained
independence, a majority rule emerged and the Tutsi lost their power. Uprising
and revolts among the majority (the Hutu) usually singled out the Tutsi for
revenge. With this came a huge massacre of the Tutsi. The Tutsi are even now
having to flee from their homeland of Rwanda because of the anger and uprising
directed toward them. In South Africa, the first Europeans to colonize were the

Boers, which means farmer in Afrikaans. They were Dutch speaking livestock
farmers who came over with the Dutch East India Company in 1652. From the Boers
emerged the Afrikaners who also included political and religious refugees from

Western Europe. British Imperial rule was established over Afrikaners and

Africans alike by the beginning of the twentieth century. Then, through
compromise, the Boer and Briton together gained independence from imperial rule
and control of a new nation-state, the Union of South Africa, in 1910. From 1910
until 1948, there was a division of power between white political parties
aligned essentially with the British and Afrikaner cultural traditions. The

Afrikaner-dominated National Party won the 1948 election and immediately began
to implement the policy known as apartheid. Through this policy, all of the
population groups in South Africa classified by the government as non-European
would now be governed separately and subordinated at every level to white South

Africans. The vast majority of Africans were restricted to rural reservations
that were called homelands. As repression accelerated, petition filled protest
gave way to unarmed resistance and then to armed resistance. One of the primary
dissident groups was the African National Congress, the oldest surviving African
political organization in sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of the African National

Congress was to establish a nonracial alliance to end apartheid and create a
nonracial democracy. Over the next fifty years, the African National Congress
and other organizations would