Intel Corporation
"A corporation is a business that, although owned by one or more investors,
legally has the rights and duties of an individual. Corporations have the right
to buy, sell, and own property. Corporations may make legal contracts, hire and
fire workers, set prices, and be sued, fined, and taxed. A business must obtain
a charter of incorporation from a state legislature or Congress to be legally
recognized as a corporation."(Watson, p211) While corporations didn\'t exist
until the mid to late 1800s, the idea of the corporation had existed since the
early 1600s. It all started with English merchants who started trading companies
to help fund the early colonies. If the colonies thrived, the stockholders
reaped in the profit. (Watson, p211) A corporation is started when a sole
proprietorship, a one-owner business, that is the most common form of business
institution in the US, or a partnership, an association of two or more people in
order to run a business, decides that they don\'t want to be personally
responsible for any loss the company might have. (Watson, p211) Or they might
decide that they want the company to "live on" after they die, that is
for the business to have "unlimited life". Since neither of these
goals can be reached with a sole proprietorship, or a partnership, the owner (or
owners, as the case may be) decide that he (they) want to "convert"
their business to a corporation. The owner(s) file a charter of incorporation
from the government to be legally recognized as a corporation. (Boyd, March, 99)

The owner(s) then sell shares of stock, documents representing ownership in the
corporation, to investors. These investors buy and sell the stock to small
investors, or stockholders. Since there is no limit to the number of
shareholders to a company, the investors vote (for every share you own you get
one vote) on a board of directors. The board of directors are in charge of
hiring the people responsible for the every-day running of the corporation.

These positions include, but are not limited to: the president, vice president,
and other chief administrators. (Watson, p211-212) If a corporation reaps a
profit, investors may receive a dividend, or a share of the monetary gain made
by the company. The elected board of directors choose whether the money will go
towards profit, expansion of the company, modernization of the company, or
research and development. (Watson, p212) "With about 85% of the
microprocessor market, Intel is definitely inside. Its microprocessors --
including the Pentium -- have been providing brains for IBM-compatible PCs

1981."( Intel started on July 16, 1968 when
magnetic core memory was the leading technology at the time. They were trying to
make semi-conductor memory practical with silicon memory. Unfortunately for

Intel semi-conductor memory cost 100 times more than magnetic core memory, but
the silicon had many advantages - smaller size, greater performance, and reduced
energy consumption. Then, in late 1968,the Japanese company Busicom asked Intel
to produce a series of chips (twelve chips for every unit) for a group of
programmable calculators that they were producing. Normally, chips were made
specifically for each product. Well, the designers at Intel decided that they
would make a general purpose logical chip to replace all of the many different
varieties of chips that would go into the different electronics. The logical
chip was a major success; the only problem was that Busicom had the rights to
the chip. Realizing that this chip could have a major impact on society, the
founders Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore praised the new chip, while people in the
corporation still wanted to stick with producing memory. Intel bought the rights
to the chip from the struggling Japanese company for $60,000, and this
"paved the way for Intel\'s developing vision of ubiquitous (universal)
microprocessor-based computing."(.../cn71898a.htm). The 4004 microprocessor
set was introduced near the end of 1971. "Smaller than a thumbnail and
packing 2300 transistors, the $200 chip delivered as much computing power as the
first electronic computer, ENIAC. By comparison, ENIAC relied on 18,000 vacuum
tubes packed into 3,000 cubic feet when it was built in 1946. The 4004 executed

60,000 operations in one second, primitive by today\'s standards, but a major
breakthrough at the time."."(.../cn71898a.htm). Directly after the

4004, Intel introduced the 8008 microprocessor, which processed eight bits of
information at a time, twice as much as the original chip. This technological
break-through put microprocessors everywhere, from fast food restaurants to
airport control towers. Yet no one had thought of the personal computer, until;

Intel Chairman Emeritus Moore remembers, "In the mid-1970s, someone came to
me with an idea for what was basically the