This essay Nucleotides has a total of 305 words and 2 pages.
I. nucleotides: sub units ³ DNA A. Phosphate group B. 5-carbon sugar
molecule (deoxyribose) C. nitrogen base 1. Adenine 2. Guanine 3. Thymine 4.
Cytosine Chargaff ³ base pairing rule: 1 = 3 and 2 = 4 II. Maurice Wilkins
and Rosalind Frankilin ³ X-ray diffraction photos of DNA molecule - DNA
molecules: tightly coiled helix and composed of two or three chains of
nucleotides III. Chargaff builds a model of the double helix: a spiral
staircase of 2 strands of nucleotides twisting around a central axis. A.
alternating sugar and phosphate units B. purine and pyrimidines paired up - A
can only form hydrogen bonds with T - C can only for with G. ³ 2 strands
that are complementary to each other IV. Copying of DNA: A. Replication: process
of synthesizing a new strand of DNA. B. Helices: open up the double helix by
breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary bases. C. Two strands
separated: additional enzymes and proteins attach to the individual strands and
hold them apart ³ twisting prevented D. Replication fork : where double
helix separates 1. DNA polymerases: enzymes that move along each strand ³
adding nucleotides to the exposed bases. 2. Proofreading ³ one old and one
new DNA strand 8.3 The Structure of a Gene - genes hold info specifying how to
build particular proteins - affects the phenotype of an individual because of
the activity of the protein that it specifies - DNA encoded info that specifies
particular proteins; each gene is made of a specific sequence of nucleotides I.
Genes in Eukaryotes A. interruped by necleotides that have no coding info. 1.
Introns:: noncoding sequences/ intervening - must be removed 2. Exons
:nucleotide segments that code for amino acids -stitched together once all
introns are removed II. Multigene families: clusters of almost identical
sequences; cells exist in multiple copies A. Some are silent genes: don\'¦t make
protein B. Some are only active during embryonic or fetal development C.
Topics Related to Nucleotides
Nucleic acids, DNA, Genetics, Helices, Molecular biology, Nucleic acid double helix, Base pair, RNA, Complementarity, DNA replication, Nucleic acid structure
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