Pancho Villa
Doroteo Aranga learned to hate aristocratic Dons, who worked he and many other

Mexicans like slaves, Doroteo Aranga also known as Pancho villa hated
aristocratic because he made them work like animals all day long with little to
eat. Even more so, he hated ignorance within the Mexican people that allowed
such injustices. At the young age of fifteen, Aranga came home to find his
mother trying to prevent the rape of his sister. Aranga shot the man and fled to
the Sierra Madre for the next fifteen years, marking him as a fugitive for the
first time. It was then that he changed his name from Doroteo Aranga to

Francisco "Pancho" Villa, a man he greatly admired. Upon the outbreak
of the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1911 against the Mexican dictator Porfirio

Diaz, Villa offered his services to the rebel leader Francisco I. Madero. During

Madero’s administration, he served under the Mexican general Victoriano

Huerta, who sentenced him to death for insubordination. With his victories
attracting attention in the United States, Villa escaped to the United States.

President Woodrow Wilson’s military advisor, General Scott, argued that the

U.S. should support Pancho Villa, because he would become "the George

Washington of Mexico." In August of 1914, General Pershing met Villa for
the first time in El Paso, Texas and was impressed with his cooperative
composure; Pancho Villa then came to the conclusion that the U.S. would
acknowledge him as Mexico’s leader. Following the assassination of Madero and
the assumption of power by Huerta in 1913, he returned to join the opposition
under the revolutionary Venustiano Carranza. Using "hit and run"
tactics, he gained control of northern Mexico, including Mexico City. As a
result, his powerful fighting force became "La Division Del Norte."

The two men soon became enemies, however, and when Carranza seized power in

1914, Villa led the rebellion against him. By April of 1915, Villa had set out
to destroy Carranzista forces in the Battle of Celaya. The battle was said to be
fought with sheer hatred in mind rather than military strategy, resulting in
amass loss of the Division del Norte. In October of 1915, after much worry about
foreign investments, in the midst of struggles for power, the U.S. recognized

Carranza as President of Mexico. When Pancho Villa learned of this he felt
betrayed by President Wilson and assumed Carranza had signed a dangerous pact
with the U.S., putting Mexico in United States’ hands. As a result, this set
the stage for a confrontation between the U.S. and Pancho Villa. Hence, the

United States put an embargo on Villa, not allowing him to purchase guns,
ammunition, equipment, etc., in American border towns. His transactions were,
thus, made illegal, which automatically doubles his price. Considering his
shortages, troops through harsh terrain to Aagua Prieta. Villa assumed it would
be poorly protected and by capturing it, he would create a buffer zone with the

U.S. to transport arms in his campaigning efforts. Too his surprise, Agua Prieta
was heavily protected, because Wilson had allowed Carranza to transport 5000

Mexican troops to American soil, which had arrived before Villa. The trains of
soldiers forced Villa’s tired horseback troops into retreat. The U.S. was
delighted when Carranza declared Villa done for good. Consequently, Carranza
invited old U.S. investors (from before the Revolution) to invest again. On

March 9th 1916, Villa crossed the border with about 600 men and attacked

Columbus, NM killing 17 American citizens and destroying part of the town.

Because of the growing discrimination towards Latinos, the bodies of Mexicans
were gathered and burned as a sanitary precaution against "Mexican
diseases." A punitive expedition, costing the U.S. about twenty-five
million dollars, dispatched and about 150,000 troops to be mobilized in efforts
to capture Pancho Villa, who was now known as a bandit in U.S. territory and a
hero to many in Mexico. The Tenth Cavalry, which was made up of

African-Americans and headed by Anglo-American officers, were labeled the
"Buffalo Soldiers" because they were tough men who would punish the

Mexicans. This was first time the United States used heavily armored vehicles
and airplanes, which in turn served as a practice run before W.W.II. General

John Joseph "Blackjack" Pershing had already earned a respectable name
in the U.S. with his service in the Apache campaign, Therefore, he was assigned
to head the Punitive Expedition, an attractive assignment. His mission
objective, as he understood it, was to bring Villa in dead or alive. On March

16th, the New York Times reported, "When Word Was Given, All Were After

Villa." The expedition included