Pantheon
I chose to report on the pantheon because Iíve seen pictures and I am
also very fascinated by all the Roman monuments. I looked all around the
internet and libraries. The Pantheon was very hard to find information about. It
was very challenging but I found enough information to complete this report.

This famous building stands in the business district of Romemuch as it was built
some 18 centuries ago. Amazingly, it has withstood the ravages of both the
elements and war permitting a firsthand view of a unique product constructed by

Roman hands. Now, it is exposed to acid rain and fumes from passing automobiles
and overshadowed by buildings of inferior taste; but, with trust in the future,
the Pantheon will survive. Unrecognized, the design of this ancient concrete
building reveals unparalleled features not encountered in modern design
standards. Recent studies reveal several major cracks in the dome, but it still
functions unimpaired. This condition will surely excite the curiosity of our
structural engineers. The building was built entirely without steel reinforcing
rods to resist tensile cracking, so necessary in concrete members, and for this
concrete dome with a long span to last centuries is incredible. Today, no
engineer would dare build this structure without steel rods! Modern codes of
engineering practice would not permit such mischief. No investor with knowledge
of concrete design would provide the funding. Additional constraints when
attempting to build a structure as large as the Pantheon will be discussed
later, but briefly they include the use of inadequate hand tools and unsafe
lifting devices. I believe we can learn from this activity. Workers can build
from a plan and can successfully use their proven practices only if construction
quality controls are maintained. History tells us that the Pantheon is a Greek
word meaning to honor all Gods (particularly the Olympian divinities). It is
ironic that our building has existed throughout many wars while being dedicated
to all Gods; one can readily perceive this to be a temple for our one God. And,
the Church has claimed this holy structure as a resting place for its most
famous Popes, so we continue to honor its magnificent divinity. The first
incarnation of this ancient temple was built by Agrippa, the son-in-law of the

Roman Emperor Augustus, about 27 B.C. Today, above the entrance carved in stone
are the words "M. AGRIPPA L. F. COS. TERTIUM FECIT" which is
translated, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, in his third consulate, made
it." Indeed, it is worth mentioning that Agrippa\'s engineering talents were
used in building the famous Pont de Gard aqueduct in France. As with many
cities, tragedy in the form of large fires such as those of 60, 64, 79, 100 and

110 A.D. seemed to strike Rome. Originally, many Roman buildings contained
travertine (limestone rock) which easily cracked in fires. The first Pantheon
was severely damaged and required replacement except for some parts of the lower
porch section and foundation. The Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian
during the period 118 to 128 A.D. (a time given by Ward-Perkins).2 But the

Ward-Perkins\'s period is disputed by, Lugli who said the building was started
sometime after 123 A.D. and was finished by Emperor Pius about 140 A.D.3

However, most of the bricks were made and placed in the Pantheon in 123 A.D., a
date that the maker stamped on his bricks. This was discovered in 1892 by the

French archaeologist, George Chedanne. It appears the construction of the
rotunda walls took a period of 4 to 5 years, and the dome required a like period
because of its height and the meager tools the Romans used. This long
construction period was fortunate as it gave this pozzolan concrete ample time
to cure and gain strength. Was the second temple like the first? Yes, the
fundamental principle of the old Roman religion required that the temples be
rebuilt without changes in original form. Tradition required that the main
entrance face north, and thus the whole building was oriented on the north-south
axis of the building. A description of its structural features is separated into
the configuration, foundation ring, circular walls, and dome to more clearly
define various components. How these pieces are unique in view of today\'s design
requirements will be discussed shortly. Body The Pantheon is one of the great
spiritual buildings of the world. It was built as a Roman temple and later
consecrated as a Catholic Church. Its monumental porch originally faced a
rectangular colonnaded temple courtyard and now enfronts the smaller Piazza
della Rotonda. Through great bronze doors, one enters one great circular room.

The interior volume is a