Peace and conflict resolution
You don't have control over what people say or do but you have control over your actions. It is very difficult to measure the effect of violence on the human race. Millions have lost their lives to armed conflicts as a result of man's inhumanity to man. Children are cohered into fighting forces which is against the international law. These young ones are made to fight wars they have little or no knowledge about. In many African countries like Liberia, Algeria, Angola, Burundi, Rwanda, sierra lone etc., children were used as child soldiers, this serious challenge the violent conflict poses call for attention.
The unesco charter states that "war starts from the mind of an individual". This suggests that individuals must be enlightened about peace and how to resolve conflicts non-violently. Peace education is necessary to address the culture of violence and inculcate value of non-violent charge. It is to equip people to appreciate and value their lives in order to avoid being used as instruments of violence. Peace education is to help us have understanding and learn to live together in peace.
Concept of peace
Peace is the most valuable public good but yet the most elusive.
There are 2 schools of thought, instrumentalists and the functionalists.
These 2 believe that "peace is the opposite of war and vice versa"
The concept of peace has attracted a lot of attention and interest. This is because of its importance. Its significance cannot be over-emphasized.
David Francis 2006 describes peace as the most valuable public good yet the most elusive.
It is a rare commodity in today's world. Africa's peace and security has been threatened by violent conflicts/wars. The continent has been regarded as the heart of darkness. This is because of the numerous devastating human consuming wars. There has been so much intrastate conflict, ethnic and religious conflicts that resulted in full scale civil wars that lead to the loss of life and infrastructural facilities. Peace has often been described as the absence of war. Thus war and peace have been seen as 2 sides of the same coin.
This definition therefore suggests that whenever there's no war or violence there is peace. This definition does not adequately give total understanding of the nature of peace. For instance, during war, some conditions of peace still prevail. For example, despite the long years of war between Palestine and Israel, they were still able to establish a peaceful use of water resources. War is destructive, dis-integrative. It is a form of violence that is physical, open and direct.
Johan Galtung opined that there is a form of violence that which is not immediately perceived and this type of violence is referred to as structural violence
This type of violence relates to social condition of life such as exclusion oppression of the poor by the rich, oppression of women, marginalization, police brutality, poverty, injustice, monopolization of power by some sections of the society, want, fear[perpetual] in the society and other forms of psychological pressure. Peace in a society is threatened when these social conditions exists. Peace is therefore the human desired condition and order of existence that allow the ruled and the ruler to fulfill life obligations with minimum fear or danger on life, liberty and property.
Peace is therefore partly the absence of war[-ve peace] or state of harmony and justice[+ve peace].
Peace is concerned with the elimination of violence, where violence is an act or process which impedes people from realizing their potentials- Johan Galtung 1969
Negative peace is the absence of direct violence that cause physical harm while positive peace is the absence of structural violence as in an un-even distribution of power and resources.
There are 2 interpretations of peace as converse of war. These are the instrumentalist and the functionalists interpretation.
The instrumentalists: see peace as a means to an end. Thus the absence of war signals the beginning of social progress and development
The functionalist interpretation of peace is that, Peace is fundamental, if the society is to function well. Otherwise, there won't be a lot of stress on the social and political system.
Various Conceptions of peace
Philosophical conception of peace: have conceptualized peace as the natural God given state of man. It is viewed as the pre-corruption state of perfection and earthly