Progressivism

Movements

I. The Origins of Progressivism A. A Spirit of Reform in the late 1800ís 1.

Henry George believed that poverty could be eliminated by using land
productively by everyone. Also taxing the nonproductive more than the
productive. 2. Edward Bellamy believed that the government should create a trust
to take care of the needs of the people rather than profit. 3. Many groups
wanted change for the majority of people such as the socialist, the union
members and members of municipal or city government levels. 4. Municipal reforms
in the late 1800ís and early 1900ís that gave cities limited self-rule
rather than state rule are known as Home Rule. B. Progressivism Takes Hold 1.

Progressivism aspects of reform from many programs and other movements. 2.

Because they were afraid of losing their high standard of living,
progressivesí were afraid of revolution. 3. Progressives believed that the
government should play a bigger role in regulating transportation and utilities.

4. Develop better social welfare programs. 5. The suffrage movement became a big
issue among women. 6. Child labor laws as well as many other things were brought
about by government regulations. C. Progressive Methods 1. Journalist also
helped create support by alerting the public to wrong doing or muckrakers. 2.

Investigating the issue then publicizing the results putting pressure on
legislators to take action is known as Systematic manner. D. Florence Kelley 1.

Kelley was recommended for investigating the labor conditions around Chicago. 2.

Kelley earned a law degree so that she could prosecute violators of child labor
laws as well as regulations in sweatshops. 3. Kelley believed in municipal
reforms after a political favor placed another inspector in her place. 4. 1899

National Consumers League was organized (NCL) II. Progressivism: Its Legislative

Impacts A. Urban Reform 1. Reform began mostly at the city level 2. Some machine
politicians worked with reformers to improve voter registration, city services,
established health programs and enforced tenant codes. 3. By 1915 two out of
three cities owned utilities. 4. Welfare services were put into effect. 5. Hazen

Pingree put in parks, baths, and put into effect a work-relief program. B.

Reforms at the State Level 1. Progressive governors also got involved with the
movement. 2. LaFollette brought about a direct primary in which voters elect
nominees for upcoming elections. 3. Employers and employees negotiating
differences as well as workers accident insurance became major reforms in the
work place. 4. The Supreme Court said that it was illegal to set maximum hours
for workers because it violated the individuals right to make a contract with
the employer - 1905 Lochner vs. New York. 5. The Supreme Court upheld a decision
that limited womenís work hours to 10 hours per day - 1905 Muller vs. Oregon.

6. The National Child Labor Committee convinced about 30 states to abolish Child

Labor by 1907 . 7. In 1912 minimum wage for women and children was put into
effect in Massachusetts. 8. Women were replaced with men because they would work
longer for less wages 9. Womenís push for voting rights was stifled by the
belief that females are physically weaker. D. Reforms at the Federal Level 1.

The United Mine Workers called a strike lasting until Teddy Roosevelt insisted
that both sides submit to arbitration - May, 1902. 2. A process in which an
impartial third party decides on a legally binding solution is known as
arbitration. 3. Teddy Roosevelt threatened to use the army to take over the
mines if the owners didnít accept the agreement. 4. "Square Deal" reduced
minerís hours from 10 to 9 and gave the miners a 10% raise while not
officially recognizing the minorís union. 5. The Hepburn Act authorized the

IEC to limit rates if the shippers complained them unfair - 1906. 6. The Pure

Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act required accurate labeling of
ingredients, strict sanitary conditions, and a rating system for meats - 1906.

7. Holding companies are corporations that hold the stocks and bonds of numerous
companies thus achieving a monopoly. 8. John Muir and John Wesley Powell urged
congress, in 1872, to establish Yellow Stone as the United States first national
park. 9. Yosemite in California became a national park in 1890. 10. A National

Reclamation Act (1902) aimed at planning and developing irrigation projects
aroused controversy between city residents and farmers over use or water. 11.

1912 the United States government set up a Childrenís Bureau within the

Department of Labor. 12. Womenís Bureau was also established in 1920. 13. Mary

Anderson and Julia Lathrop were the first women Bureau heads in the federal
government. 14. Prohibition