Ralph Emerson And Transcendentalism
The writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson dealt with three aspects of transcendental
thought, which consisted of spiritual, philosophical, and literary content. In
his time, Emerson imparted an influence upon his contemporaries and American
literature. He explicitly encouraged other writers by his appeal for new

American literature and new voices because America had failed to denounce

European literature and produce its own literary scholarship. Emerson believed
that literature should have a spiritual influence because of personal religious
convictions. Also, he thought philosophy could espouse essential forms through
which the mind itself quantified. Finally, Emerson believed that literary
authenticity played an integral part in the formation of American literature.

Because Emerson realized America needed to develop its own literary works, he
perpetuated the transcendentalist movement to sculpture American literature
through spirituality, philosophy, and literary content. In religion, it was
post-Unitarian and freethinking, and he articulated it in his "Divinity

School Address". In the address, Emerson perceived religion as a tedious
pursuit needed to obtain virtue in life. The controversy of Emerson\'s thinking
directly addressed the Christian Church. Jesus Christ in Emerson\'s retrospection
was a miraculous authority, but he asserted that the Christian Church erred by
exaggerating the miracles of Jesus and the confinement of revelation. His
resolution was audacious: Let me admonish you, first of all, to go alone; to
refuse the good models, even those which are sacred in the imagination of men,
and date to love God without mediator or veil. To Emerson, the religious aspect
of transcendentalism was intended to deny past ways of significance and to
discover new, perceptive approaches to God. Nature, Emerson\'s first book,
reinforces the philosophical concepts of the movement. The book is an attempt to
answer the proactive question on the first page, "Let us inquire, to what
end is nature?" "Language," one of Emerson\'s desired chapters,
indoctrinates his logical thesis of Nature saying: 1. Words are signs of natural
facts. 2. Particular Natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual Facts. 3.

Nature is the symbol of spirit. The use of natural history is to give us aid in
supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the
beings and changes of the inward creation. This indicates that the natural realm
exist as a model of the spiritual realm. Emerson\'s essay, The American Scholar,
articulates the literary movement of Transcendentalism. He articulates how the

United States of America demanded and deserved a new literature, and that this
literature would speak about and to the American people. His reasoning for this
outcry is the dependency America continued to have on European literature.

Emerson asserted that scholars needed to be self-reliant through the powers of
human intuition. Also, he suggested that scholars must be students of nature,
because nature is the suitable influence upon the mind of the scholar: "1.

The first in time and the first in importance of the influences upon the mind is
that of nature....The scholar....must settle its value in his mind. What is
nature to him?" He is asking the scholar to assume the same survey he
attempted in Nature. Emerson used "The American Scholar" as an address
designed at stimulating American men and women of letters as individuals and as
a nation: We have listened too long to the courtly muses of Europe... We will
walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak with our
own minds. The study of letters shall be no longer a name for pity, for doubt,
and for sensual indulgence. The dread of man and the love of man shall be a wall
of defense and a wrath of joy around all. A nation of men will for the first
time exist, because each believes himself inspired by the Divine Soul which also
inspires all men. This was intended as a message for America to develop its own
culture. When the American scholar is independent of Europe, he will recognize
that "the ancient precept \'Know Thyself,\' and the modern precept, \'Study
nature,\' become at last one maxim." Therefore, Emerson uses nature as a
catalyst for his transcendentalist movement. The influence of nature must be
shaped by the mind of the past. By embracing natural history in terms of
literary and spiritual ends, Emerson\'s work suggests that American literature
can greatly be inspired by America\'s nature.