Robinson Crusoe

Daniel Defoe is credited with writing the first long fiction novel in literary
history. Drawing from established literary genres such as the guide and
providence traditions and the spiritual biography, Defoe endeavored to
illustrate the life of a man who "tempted Providence to his ruine (Defoe

13)" and the consequences of such actions. While stranded alone on an
island the character of Robinson Crusoe seems to have a religious epiphany about
the role of Providence in his life and resolves to live in accordance with God\'s
will. However, Crusoe\'s internal reflections throughout his narrative and his
actions do not correlate, causing the reader to question the validity of this
conversion. By examining the plot and the process of psychological change Crusoe
undergoes, it becomes apparent that "he experiences and accepts divine
control but that control can only be realized in the free context he has himself
created (359)." When push comes to shove, Crusoe reverts to human instinct
and his own impulses rather than what he perceives to be the will of Providence.

Crusoe uses his newfound religion only when convenient and as a means to justify
his actions and an acceptable reason for everything unfortunate that happens.

When he finally does leave the island and returns to society, Crusoe\'s faith is
tested and fails miserably, with practically no mention of Providence towards
the end of the story. At the beginning of the novel, Crusoe introduces himself
and establishes that his narrative is a memoir of sorts, and is told while
looking through more experienced, wise eyes than when he originally experienced
his story. This is important to note, because his discourse is shaded with
hindsight and interpreted through a mind that has come to accept Providence\'s
hand in his life. For example, when the Turks capture Crusoe and he is enslaved,
he reflects by saying, "now the Hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without Redemption. But alas! This was but a Taste of the Misery I was to
go thro\' (15)." Because Crusoe is recalling the events from memory, as well
as the lack of input from any other characters, his reliability can be
questioned as a narrator. An unreliable narrator is one who may be in error in
his or her understanding or report of things and who thus leaves readers without
the guides needed for making judgements. For this reason, the reality of

Crusoe\'s "religious conversion" later in the novel can be questioned
as well as his interpretation of events. Crusoe begins by telling about his
defiance of his father\'s wishes and advice. Crusoe\'s father advises him not to
go to sea and suffer the same fate as his brother, now dead, and pursue a life
"in the Middle of two Extremes, between the Mean and the Great...to have
neither poverty or riches (5)." This ideal is reminiscent of Puritanism and
its doctrine that discouraged the pursuit of wealth and power. Crusoe was
"sincerely affected with this Discourse, which was truly Prophetick
(6)," but its effects "wore all off" of him and he goes to sea
anyway, seeking fortune and adventure. This action proves later to be very
consistent with Crusoe\'s character, as he repeatedly is affected by the great,
life-changing events in a spiritual sense, but with time these effects seem to
"wear off." This event is also colored as Crusoe\'s "original
sin," as none of the terrible events that happen later would have occurred
if he had followed his father\'s advice. After an interesting chain of events,

Crusoe finds himself shipwrecked upon an island while making a voyage to buy
slaves. While trying to make sense of his condition, he falls very ill and cries
out to God, "Lord look upon me, Lord pity on me, Lord have Mercy upon me
(64)." Crusoe makes this first attempt at a relationship with God while in
a very dire situation, not during his everyday life, making his religion that of
convenience. Crusoe has a dream while ill and after experiencing an earthquake,
seeing a terrible man descend from the heavens, declaring, "Seeing all
these Things have not brought thee to Repentance, now thou shalt die (65)."

This passage sounds quite like a Puritan sermon, with its ministers preaching
fire and brimstone. The vision spurs a mortal fear of damnation within Crusoe
and causes him to search for an explanation with Providence. He reflects upon
his previous years by saying: "In relating what is already past of my

Story, this will be more easily believ\'d, when I shall add, that thro\' all the

Variety of Miseries that had to this Day befallen me, I had