Soap Ingredients

LAB Purpose: To make a basic soap and a soap with other than basic ingredients
using Lye, Olive Oil and Oatmeal and to learn about the history of soap and how
the process of saponification works. Procedure: A. Basic Olive oil soap

Materials a. 1- 2 liter beaker b. 1- 100 ml beaker c. 2 thermometers d. 1
container with lid e. 1 balance f. 1 graduated cylinder g. 2 spoons h. 1
stainless steel bowl i. 1 heating plate 1. Put on safety goggles 2. Person A:

Fill a container to cool the NaOH solution with cold water and make sure someone
comes in before and after school for the next 4 or 5 days 3. Person B: Clean
working area, cover immediate work area with newspaper, get plastic container
that will hold soap and mark with tape on base of container. 4. Person C: put on
latex gloves a. Weigh 100g (3.5 oz.) of NaOH and put it in the 2 liter beaker.
b. Measure 283.5 ml (10 oz.) of cold water. c. Slowly add water to NaOH and stir
with a spoon to dissolve NaOH. Place thermometer in the solution and place the
beaker in the cooling container. d. Stir NaOH and cool to 38 degrees Celcius and
keep this temperature constant until person D is at 38 degrees with the oil
mixture. Use heating plate or cooling container as necessary. e. Slowly add NaOH
to the oil mixture while stirring constantly. f. Stir for 15 minutes. g. Pour
into soap container and put lid on. 5.Person D a. Measure 643 ml (13 oz.) of

Olive oil and 175 ml of Blended oil. Add both to the stainless steel mixing bowl
and put a thermometer in it. b. Heat oil to 38 degrees Celcius. c. Once at 38
degrees, talk to person C and keep temperature constant 6. After a few days
remove lid and air dry When soap has dried put it on paper, cut into 8 pieces
and dry for a few more days. B. Oatmeal soap Materials a. 1 muffin container and
a piece of tape b. heating plate c. balance d. oatmeal e. grater f. graduated
cylinder 1. Person A: Get a muffin container and label it. 2. Person B: Weigh
out 100g of oatmeal. Grind oats in blender until 1/5 original size. When oil and
water mixture has become clear, add and mix in oatmeal. 3. Person C: Grate 340 g
(12 oz.) of the soap into the metal bowl. 4. Person D: Get a heating plate,
measure and add 225 ml (9 oz.) of water to grated soap. Heat on low and stir
until soap has dissolved to clear, take ot off the heat and add Person B\'s
oatmeal. 5. Person A: Pour the mixture into a muffin container. Place container
in freezer. After drying for a few days, pop out and let dry. Results: A. Olive
oil Soap The Olive oil soap turned out quite well. The only thing that was
unexpected was the awkward, and bumpy shape of the soap . But this is because of
the container it was made in. Other than this, the Olive oil soap moisturizes
much better and is much gentler than commercial brands. B. Oatmeal Soap Just as
the Olive oil soap turned out great, the Oatmeal soap turned out even better.

The only drawback is that the oatmeal flakes weren\'t ground up enough. This is
not very attractive but it doesn\'t really do anything to the soap\'s performance.

Conclusion: A. Olive oil Soap This was a farely error free procedure. One of the
problems was getting the oil and the NaOH to match up exactly degrees Celcius.

This could be avoided in the future by using identical hot plates and heating
each liquid slowly paying very close attention to it. One minor problem was that
the top of the soap was uneven after stirring it and it dryed that way. This
could be fixed simply by smoothing it out after stirring. Another problem that
occurred was the white, hard crust that formed. The white crust could possibly
be avoided by mixing more often and mixing right up until the soap hardens. B.

Oatmeal Soap The only problem that we encountered with the oatmeal soap was that
the flakes were too big. To avoid this in the future it would be good to have a
more sophisticated grinder and grind the flakes for a longer duration of time.

References: 1. Hiscox, Gardner D. Henley\'s 20th Century Book of 10,000 Formulas,

Processes