Susan Brownell Anthony 

I. Susan B. Anthony : A Biographical Introduction Susan Brownell Anthony was
born on February 15, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts to Daniel and Lucy Anthony.
Susan was the second born of eight children in a strict Quaker family. Her
father, Daniel Anthony, was said to have been a stern man, a Quaker Abolitionist
and a cotton manufacturer born near the conclusion of the eighteenth century.
From what I read, he believed in "guiding" his children, not in
\'directing\' them. Daniel Anthony did not allow his offspring to experience the
childish amusements of toys, games, and music, which were seen as distractions
from the "inner light." Instead he enforced self-discipline,
principled convictions, and the belief in one\'s own self-worth. Each of my
sources indicates that Susan was a precocious child and she learned to read and
write at the age of three. In 1826, the Anthonys moved from Massachusetts to
Battensville, New York where Susan attended a district school. When the teacher
refused to teach Susan long division, Susan was taken out of school and taught
in a "home school" set up by her father. The school was run by a woman
teacher, Mary Perkins. Perkins offered a new image of womanhood to Susan and her
sisters. She was independent and educated and held a position that had
traditionally been reserved to young men. Ultimately, Susan was sent to boarding
school near Philadelphia. She taught at a female academy and Quaker boarding
school, in upstate New York from 1846-49. Afterwards, she settled in her family
home in Rochester, New York. It was here that she began her first public crusade
on behalf of temperance (Anthony, 1975). II. The Struggle for Women\'s Rights
Susan B. Anthony\'s first involvement in the world of reform was in the
temperance movement. This was one of the first expressions of original feminism
in the United States and it dealt with the abuses of women and children who
suffered from alcoholic husbands. The first women\'s rights convention had taken
place in Seneca Falls, New York, in July of 1848. The declaration that emerged
was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. Written by Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, it claimed that "all men and women are created equal" and
that "the history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and
usurpations on the part of man toward woman" (Harper, 1993, vol. 1).
Following a long list of grievances were resolutions for equitable laws, equal
educational and job opportunities, and the right to vote. One year later in
1849, Susan B. Anthony gave her first public speech for the "Daugters of
Temperance" and then helped to found the Woman\'s State Temperance Society
of New York, one of the first such organizations of its time. In 1851, she went
to Syracuse to attend a series of anti-slavery meetings. During this time Susan
met Elizabeth Stanton in person, became fast friends, and subsequently joined
her and another woman named Amelia Bloomer in campaigns for women\'s rights. In
1854, she devoted herself to the anti-slavery movement serving from 1856 to the
outbreak of the civil war in 1861. Here, Susan B. Anthony served as an agent for
the American Anti-slavery Society. Afterwards, she collaborated with Stanton and
published the New York liberal weekly, "The Revolution." (from
1868-70) which called for equal pay for women (Harper, 1993, vols. 1 & 2).
In 1872, Susan demanded that women be given the same civil and political rights
that had been extended to black males under the 14th and 15th amendments. Thus,
she led a group of women to the polls in Rochester to test the right of women to
vote. She was arrested two weeks later and while awaiting trial, engaged in
highly publicized lecture tours and in March 1873, she tried to vote again in
city elections. After being tried and convicted of violating the voting laws,
Susan succeeded in her refusal to pay the fine of one hundred dollars. From then
on- she campaigned endlessly for a federal woman suffrage amendment through the
National Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) (from 1869-90) and the National
American Woman Suffrage Association (from 1890-1906) and by lecturing throughout
the country as well (Barry, 1988). III. After Anthony : The Struggle Continues
The struggle to eventually win the vote was a slow and frustrating one. Wyoming
Territory in 1869, Utah Territory in 1870, and the states of Colorado in 1893
and Idaho in 1896 granted women the vote but the Eastern states still resisted
it. The woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, presented to every
Congress since 1878, repeatedly failed to pass. Over a generation later, when
the United States entered