Tobacco Smoke

Did you know that most people are at the risk of dying from just breathing the
air around them? Every day at least ninety-five percent of American people
suffer from (E.T.S.) Environmental Tobacco Smoke, or more commonly known as
second hand smoke. For those that are not familiar with what second hand smoke
is let me explain it to you. Second hand smoke is a mixture of the smoke exhaled
by smokers and the smoke that comes from the burning ends of cigarettes, cigars,
and pipes. This smoke contains about 4,000 substances in which about fifty
percent of these toxic substances can cause cancer and other bodily problems.

Environmental Tobacco Smoke has been a problem for many years, but through
intense research from many physicians, non-smokers are finally getting the
respect they deserve. Smokers now have to smoke outside of public places. While
some non-smokers ignore the dangers involved with tobacco smoke others are
struggling to live another day. Environmental Tobacco Smoke is made up of both a
gas phase and a particulate phase. Together they include more than 4,000
substances. Automatic tobacco-puffing machines have been invented to collect and
to study the smoke. In recent years studies have shown us the most hazardous of
these chemicals. Tar is considered the deadliest of all the substances. Other
chemicals found in tobacco smoke that are hazardous to us are carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide, carboxyhemoglobin, and nicotine (Mendelson and Mello 33-35).

During the burning process of tobacco the tip of the burning cone (the center of
the pipe, cigarette, and or cigar) reaches a temperature of nearly 2,000 degrees

Fahrenheit during a puff. This tiny blast furnace results in a miniature
chemical plant, which uses the hundreds of available materials to produce many
more. In fact, some of the most important part of tobacco smoke (including tar
and carbon monoxide) are not even present in an unburned phase of a tobacco
product, but rather are produced when a puff is taken (Mendelson and Mello

37-38). Other studies have shown that indoor environmental tobacco smoke changes
the tobacco substance in the gas phase. As tobacco smoke is discharged into an
indoor environment, diluted, re-circulated within and vented from the indoor
environment, changes occur in both its chemical makeup phases. Making the gas
phase substance more harmful than being in a outdoor environment (Ecobichon and

Wu 3-4). Tobacco products produce two kinds of smoke, mainstream and sidestream.

Mainstream smoke is the smoke that smokers inhale into their lungs. Sidestream
smoke is the smoke that is exhaled by the smoker. The average smoker inhales ten
two-second puffs of mainstream smoke from the tobacco product they are smoking.

As the cigarette, pipe, or cigar sits it releases waves of sidestream smoke into
the air. According to some scientists, sidestream smoke is even more dangerous
than mainstream smoke. In a recent article produced by the Iowa Medical Society
it states that sidestream smoke contains five times the carbon monoxide, three
times the tar and nicotine, and up to fifty times the number of carcinogens
found in mainstream smoke. A study reported by the National Institute of

Environmental Health Sciences confirms that second-hand smoke contains up to
fifty times more carcinogens (Ling et al. 92). Carcinogens are described in the

Webster\'s dictionary as being a substance that produces a malignant tumor, or
cancer in a living cell (Landoll et al. 71). In today\'s society people are aware
that tobacco smoke is unhealthy, but most choose not to become concerned with
what this chemical does to their bodies. With the amount of smokers in today\'s
society, Environmental Tobacco Smoke has diluted are air with thousands of
chemicals that causes severe damage to both our inner and exterior body
components. Doctor Ameron of Atlanta Georgia writes that six out of ten
non-smokers will end up with reduced lung functioning and or upper or lower
respiratory problems. According to Ameron, secondhand smoke is even more
dangerous than mainstream smoke. He also states that breathing tobacco smoke can
aggravate the condition of people with allergies or with lung, heart, or
respiratory problems. Sufferers with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, for
instance, are made extremely uncomfortable by severe air pollution. Yet the
levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants in smoke-filled rooms may be as
high or higher than those that occur during air pollution emergencies (Berger

81-87). According to a Health Advocate Magazine, research from different
physicians show that Environmental Tobacco Smoke can cause severe heart
conditions, and assorted respiratory problems by being exposed to the smoke for
a period of time. Even perfectly healthy people are affected by second-hand
smoke. Their heart rate, blood pressure, and