The City of Tucson is currently using far more water than it is replacing.

Options and plans to solve this problem in the future are severely limited
because of the fact that Tucson, Arizona is desert land. With the population
continually growing, and each populant continually using more water, something
needs to be done. The only answer that can be immediately put into action is
water conservation. This solution can be practiced by individuals, corporations
associations, and many other people - people need to realize that they need to
help now. Through research, this paper reveals the specific reasons that people
need to conserve water now, gives some insight to help the reader understand why
the water will run out, and tells the reader how they can help now. INTRODUCTION

Water is the source of all life, especially in a desert community such as

Tucson, Arizona - where the state's average rainfall is less than 10 inches a
year (2c). Water is the reason that humans were able to settle in the Southwest,
and without it, the great city of Tucson would be non-existant. Humans also have
to realize that this supply of water is valuable and limited, and unable to
support this region indefinitely. Since we, the local residents of Tucson, are
currently using far more groundwater than we are replacing (8), consideration
and planning need to be addressed in the form of conserving this precious
supplier of life, water. MATERIALS AND METHODS In searching for materials
relevant to my topic, I was faced with several options. First, Dr. James Riley
gave me a couple of very useful phone numbers: one, to contact the Pima

Association of Governments - (520) 792-1093 - and the other, the Arizona

Department of Environmental Quality - 1-800-234-5677. Each was quite helpful and
offered to send me information through the mail, but my time span would not
allow this. So then, I turned to the University of Arizona's Sabio Library

Reference search, available online at http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/, and
found numerous sources available by using the keywords "Tucson, Arizona
water conservation". Many of these were books that I felt were out-dated
and inadequate to my needs, so I turned to some other search engines on the
internet, using the same key words. I found several helpful sites, but the most
helpful was the homepage for Water Resources in the Tucson Basin, available at
http://ag.arizona.edu/swes/tucwater1/ -- I scrolled down to the area labeled
internet links to find up-to-date sites with the most information available on
water conservation in the Tucson area. RESULTS In order to conceive the concept
that our water supply will not last forever, one must realize where the water is
coming from. As Water words, a quarterly newsletter produced by SAWARA,
explained it: "Nearly all water used in this area comes from an underground
aquifer formed over thousands of years of geologic time. The aquifer is made up
of varying layers of clays, sands and gravels that have been deposited in Avra

Valley and the basin which underlies the greater metropolitan Tucson and Green

Valley area. Substantial volumes of water, accumulated from years of snowmelt
and rainfall, are contained within the tiny spaces surrounding the grains of
these sediments." (8) This picture, shown on the Water Resources Research

Center WebPages, at http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/ (2d) shows a nice diagram
of the explanation from above. By understanding how these aquifers formed over
thousands of years, hopefully you are able to associate that they do not quickly
replenish themselves. Therefore, at the rate humans are using the water from the
wells dug into these aquifers, it will soon be gone. So we must realize that
there are many actions that must be taken, the most important being
conservation. In research data presented by the Tucson Active Management Area,
it shows that Tucson is currently using about 312,000 acre-feet (AF) per year
(1a). The major sources that this water supply comes from includes groundwater,
effluent water, and CAP water. As show by the figure below (1b). Water Supplies

Used To Meet Demand - 1994 Source Acre-Feet Percent Central Arizona Project

24,000 7.7 Effluent 11,000 3.5 Groundwater 279,000 88.8 (One acre-foot equals

325,851 gallons.) As one can see, an overwhelmingly large amount of the water
supply comes specifically through groundwater. The very source that is the most
difficult to replenish because this groundwater supply has accumulated over
thousands of years. But as the number of water users is rapidly increasing each
year, as well as the amount of water each uses, it is easy to conclude that this
supply will eventually have to run dry (2d). Since little of this precious water
can be replenished