Wireless Technology

Wireless Technology applied to Computer Processing
Wireless technology can provide many benefits to computing including faster
response to queries, reduced time spent on paperwork, increased online time for
users, just-in-time and real time control, tighter communications between
clients and hosts. Wireless Computing is governed by two general forces:

Technology, which provides a set of basic building blocks and User Applications,
which determine a set of operations that must be carried out efficiently on
demand. This paper summarizes technological changes that are underway and
describes their impact on wireless computing development and implementation. It
also describes the applications that influence the development and
implementation of wireless computing and shows what current systems offer. II.

Introduction Wireless computing is the topic of much conversation today. The
concept has been around for some time now but has been mainly utilizing
communication protocols that exist for voice-based communication. It is not
intended to replace wired data communication but instead to be utilized in areas
that it would be otherwise impossible to communicate using wires. Only recently
has the industry been taking steps to formulate a standard that is more suitable
to data transmission. Some the problems to be overcome are: a. Data Integrity -
relatively error free transmission, b. Speed - as close as possible to the speed
of current wired networks, c. Protection - making sure that the data now
airborne is encoded and cannot be tapped by unwelcome receivers, d.

Compatibility - ensuring that the many protocols that sure to be created
subscribe to a standard to allow inter-operability, e. Environmentally safe -
strengths of electromagnetic radiation must be kept within normal levels. In our
study of the theories and implementation concerns of wireless computing, we
found that it is being treated in an object-oriented fashion. Scientists and
development crews, including the IEEE, are doing their best to implement
wireless connectivity without changing the existing computer hardware. As a
result, a lot of focus is on using existing computer hardware and software to
convert data to a format compatible with the new hardware, which will be added
to the computer using ports, or PCMCIA connections that already exist. This
means that wireless communication will be transparent to the user if and when
wireless computing is utilized on a wide scale. Wireless computing applications
covers three broad areas of computing today. Replacement of normal wired LANís
need to retain the speed and reliability found in wired LANís. Creation of
semi permanent LANís for quick and easy setup without the need for running
wires. This would be necessary for events such as earthquakes. The last category
is that of mobile computing. With advent of PCMCIA cards, notebook computers are
being substituted for regular desktop machines with complete connectivity of the
desktop machine. However, you lose the connectivity when out of the office
unless you have a wireless means of communicating. On the compatibility issue,
the ability to mix wireless brands on a single network is not likely to come
soon. The IEEE Standards Committee is working on a wireless LAN standard --

802.11, which is an extension of the Ethernet protocol. Because the field of
wireless communication is so broad, the IEEE was not able to set a standard by
the time private researchers were ready to test their theories hoping to set the
standard for others to follow. II. Methods There are a few methods of wireless
communication being theorized and tested. Radio: This is the method that makes
use of standard radio waves in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz frequency range. Although
these frequencies are well used, methods have been developed to ensure data
integrity. Spread spectrum transmission of data is a method where the
transmitter will send information simultaneously out over many frequencies in
the range increasing the change that all data will eventually reach the
receiver. Frequency hopping is an additional measure that also enables data
security. The 26 MHz ranges of frequencies is further divided in to channels.

The transmitter then sends out data hopping from one channel to the next in a
certain pattern known to the receiver. Within each channel, spread spectrum
transmission can be used to maintain interference avoidance. Some of this
transmission manipulation can be avoided by transmitting at a frequency that is
less used. Some developers have tried transmitting in the gigahertz range. The
disadvantages here are: a. Higher frequencies mean shorter wavelengths and
shorter wavelengths do not penetrate solid objects like walls and floors; b. The
same transmission strength employed by lower wavelength transmitters yields a
shorter range at higher frequencies. This means that transmission strength will
need to be boosted something hard to accomplish using portable tools