Year 2000 Problem
Argument for the statement "The Year 2000 bug will have such extensive
repercussions that families and individuals should begin planning now for the
imminent chaos." The Ticking Bomb Introduction A serious problem called the
"Millennium Bug", and also known as the "Year 2000 Problem"
and "Y2K", is bringing a new century celebration into a daunting
nightmare. In the 1860s and 1970s, when computer systems were first built, the
computer hardware, especially information storage space, was at a premium. With
an effort to minimise storage costs, numeric storage spaces were drained to the
smallest possible data type. Ignoring the fact that a software may be run in
multiple centuries, programmers started conserving storage spaces by using two
digits to specify a year, rather than four. Consequently, on January 1, 2000,
unless the software is corrected, most software programs with date or time may
malfunction to recognise the entries in the year fields "00" as the
year as "1900" instead of "2000" . Year 2000 problem is not
restricted only to the above exigency. 20 years ago, everybody understood that a
leap year came every 4th year except for every 100th year. However, a piece of
algorithm has been forgotten by most people Ė a leap year does exist every 400
years. So, under the first two rules, year 2000 is not a leap year, but with the
third rule, it actually is. Computing errors will also occur before Year 2000.

Values such as 99 are sometimes used for special purposes not related to the
date. The number 99 is used in some systems as an expiration date for data to be
archived permanently Ė so some computers may lose the data a year before 2000.

Programmers and software developers were surprised to see some of their programs
survive for only a few years but failed to anticipate the problems coming by the
year 2000. It is sorrowful to find most programs are still in use or have been
incorporated into successor systems. Because of the need for new applications to
share data in a common format with existing systems, inheriting the six-digit
date field that has become a standard over time. The disaster scenario envisaged
is that a great number of computer systems around the world will make processing
errors and will either crash or produce incorrect outputs . As a result
financial institutions, businesses organisations, informational technology and
even aeroplane radar communications will all then be in a welter of confusion.

In military services, the system meltdown may also worsen the appropriate
control of nuclear missiles in silos. It is a ticking time bomb destined to
wreak havoc on millions of computer systems in every economy, both commercial
and residential, and thus need everyone\'s serious attention. However, the bug is
likely to affect more staggeringly the business computers which imply an
alarming economic problem. Many organisations have not yet started projects to
examine the impact of the millennium bug on their systems. By applying The

Standish Groupís CHAOS research to Year 2000 projects, 73% of Y2K projects
will fail according to the pace now taking. The biggest challenge for these
companies is convincing top level management of the severity of the year 2000
problem and the amount of time, money and resources needed to fix it. On that
account, to ensure this disaster is minimised, none of us should worm out of
devoting resources in preventing the potential anarchy. It is a costly Task As
simple as the problem sounds, the fix for the Millennium Bug will cost up to

US$600 billion world-wide, according to estimates by the Gartner Group, a
leading information technology consultancy. The software fixes are very
time-consuming, requiring considerable effort to examine millions of lines of
source code in order to locate problem date fields and correct them. The costs
to apply the fixes will vary from company to company, but research has given the
figure of approximately between US$0.50 to $2 per line of source code for
modification, with these costs expected to escalate as much as 50 per cent for
every year that projects are delayed. Unfortunately, this average excludes date
conversions on military weapons systems software, which is expected to be
significantly more expensive to convert, and the real figure should even be much
larger. One of the first steps an organisation needs to take on the way to
ensuring Year 2000 compliance is to determine what they have to be changed. The
business will need to prepare an inventory of hardware and software utilised to
allow assessment of problem areas. It is hard to address the potential for
problems when no