American History Page 11

Communist China The future of communism in China is unknown, as the world economy becomes more international. Communism has been in China since 1949 and is still present in the country’s activities. Presently China is undergoing incredible economic growth and promises to be a dominant power early in the next century. China’s social tradition has come under heavy pressure from forces of modernization generated in a large part by the sustained contact with the West that began in the middle of the
Constitution With the Constitution the elite society protected rights for every American that would secure and ensure our nation’s existence for hundreds of years. Under the Articles of Confederation, the United States’ government was in a state of chaos. To end the existing chaos and build a stronger democratic society for the future, the government would need to be more powerful and centralized. Thus, the elite class established the rules and boundaries that would protect the rights of all ci
Constitutional Interpretation The question of Constitutional interpretation still has yet to be resolved. Should only the explicit commands of our nation’s Founding Fathers be referenced in courts of law, or can it be justified that an outside body should extrapolate from the specific text of the Constitution to define and defend additional fundamental rights? Further, if this body, namely the Supreme Court, bases its decisions of constitutional relevance not wholly on exact interpretation, the
Cuba\'s Politics While the isle of Cuba was initially discovered on October 27, 1492 during one of Columbus’ first voyages, it wasn’t actually claimed by Spain until the sixteenth century. However, it’s tumultuous beginnings as a Spanish sugar colony provides an insightful backdrop into the very essence of the country’s political and economic unrest. From it’s early revolutionary days to the insurrectional challenge of the Marxist-Leninist theories emerged the totalitarian regime under Fidel Ca
Death Penalty The Costs of the Death Penalty in the United States Capital punishment has existed in the US since colonial times. Since then, more than 13,000 people have been legally executed. Today, there are only twelve states which do not have the death penalty: Alaska, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin, as well as Washington D.C. The locations of these states are important because they illustrate the lac
Democracy In Latin America Is Democracy Sustainable in Latin America? In order to determine if democracy is sustainable in Latin America, it is important to understand or at least have an idea of what democracy is. There are several types of democracy and each is different. According to the English dictionary, democracy is a government by the people; especially: rule of the majority by a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly
Diplomacy And Mediation Mediation is a dispute resolution process in which a neutral third party assists the participants to reach a voluntary and informed settlement. Mediation and diplomacy have both been used more and more frequently after the Second World War in order to prevent such a tragedy from reoccurring. Diplomacy can be used in several ways, but not all are considered orthodox although they can contribute to peaceful resolutions of problems. Certain countries like the United States
Diplomatic Immunity A Study of Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges I. Introduction – A Brief History of Diplomacy II. Related Terms in Diplomacy III. United Nations Legislation A. Vienna Conventions 1961 and 1963 B. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976 and Diplomatic Relations Act of 1978 C. General Assembly Resolution IV. U.S. Policy on Diplomatic Immunity V. Abuses of Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges VI. Conclusion VII. Appendices VIII. Bibliography I. INTRODUCTION – A Brief History o
First Amendment The first amendment of the US Constitution states that congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.... Ever since the beginning of the Supreme Court, cases have come up time and time again that challenge this amendment, or require the justices to interpret this amendment. Looking back at all the cases heard, it is obvious that the US Supreme Court have changed
Flag Burning Is it more important to protect the icons of our country, or to ensure the right to extremely offensive expressions? The issue of flag burning asks America just that question: Should America tolerate, or condemn? Flag burning does seem to be the ultimate act of symbolic protest used to express dissension against the American Government. There is simply no questioning the fact that flag burning offends people, but the controversy of flag burning tests the dominion of the First Amendm
Flag Desecration The issue of flag desecration has been and continues to be a highly controversial issue; on the one side there are those who believe that the flag is a unique symbol for our nation which should be preserved at all costs, while on the other are those who believe that flag burning is a form of free speech and that any legislation designed to prevent this form of expression is contrary to the ideals of the First Amendment to our Constitution. Shawn Eichman, as well as the majority
Geopolitics Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions, and transactions. The term \'Geopolitics\' has originally invented, in 1899, by a Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the concept of \'geopolitic
Globalization For many years black people in the United States have struggled for their rights and their piece of the American dream. Now that the world is moving toward a new global era the African American person, worker and human has been left out of this turn in the century and, the system is letting them hang their selves. Globalization has made it so that anyone with the right equipment and knowledge can chat or do business anywhere in the world with just a few clicks of a couple of butto
Haiti\'s Politics The flood of refugees and disorder of democracy in the island nation of Haiti created the great controversy of whether the United States (US) should intervene and restore order in the country. The US turned to its worldview of disengagement to provide guidance; the conclusion questioned if even a drop of American blood should be spilled to aid Haiti. The experience in Vietnam modified attitudes so that the US wouldn’t be so quick to intervene militarily in foreign conflicts. I
Immigration Problem The world has gone through a revolution and it has changed a lot. We have cut the death rates around the world with modern medicine and new farming methods. For example, we sprayed to destroy mosquitoes in Sri Lanka in the 1950s. In one year, the average life of everyone in Sri Lanka was extended by eight years because the number of people dying from malaria suddenly declined. This was a great human achievement. But we cut the death rate without cutting the birth rate. Now p
Iraq\'s Problems The topic I choose was Iraq and its past and still ongoing problems with the United Nations. The reason I choose this topic as oppose to another topic is war and the United Nations has always fascinated me. With Saddam Hussein still being stubborn with UN weapons inspectors it was incredibly easy to obtain information regarding this topic. The Los Angles Times; California; Feb 12 2000; The newest article I attained was from the February 12 edition of the Los Angles Times. It wa
Isaiah Berlin Isaiah Berlin became one of our century’s most important political theorists for liberty and liberalism in an age of totalitarianism. He was born in Riga, Latvia in 1909 into a well to do Jewish family. At the age of 12 he moved to Petrograd and experienced first hand the Bolshevik revolution, which would later influence his intellectual ideas about totalitarianism (Gray 3). In 1921 his family moved to London and sent Isaiah to school. His schooling lead him to Oxford where he too
Israeli-Arab Antagonism Western historians are re-examining the troubled 20th century history of Israel and Palestine. Previously published revelations of Israel\'s military strength and aggressive operations during the 1948 Israeli-Arab war remained confined to a select group of historians: (Simha Flapan, The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities and Ilian Pappe, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951). Now, the established media is beginning to publish similar information. Washingt
Japan Politics In 1960 Japan was ruled by the conservative LDP. Nabuski Kitchie ran the LDP, a man who had been jailed as a war criminal during the occupation. His comeback can be attributed to his pre-war contacts in big business. Kitchie believed to survive Japan’s economy had to grow. I order to do so Japan\'s businesses had to be disciplined. Kitchie gave directives to the ministry to pass on to the heads of big business. These directives were much like orders from a general. Some Japanese
Jimmy Carter The Carter Center in Atlanta Georgia is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public institute founded by former U.S. president Jimmy Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, in 1982 (Carter Center). The Center in dedicated to fighting disease, hunger, poverty, conflict, and oppression. At present, the Center operates 13 core programs, which have touched the lives of people in 65 countries, including the U.S. Habitat for Humanity began in 1984 when Carter led a work group to New York City to renovate a s
Kosovo Conflict The Balkans have been a very unstable region for hundreds of years. The reason for contention is because of ethnic origin and disputes of which race owns which land.. That is the reason for the dispute over Kosovo is because of the same thing. This is a very complicated situation, that I don\'t really know everything about. I just kind of know the basics. Back in the 1500 hundreds, the Serbs conquered the Kosovo area, slowly and gradually over the years the Ethnic Albanians star
Latin America In attempting to establish the current state of development in Latin America, historical chronology serves as the foundation necessary for a comprehensively logical position. Latin American development has evolved in distinct phases, which lead to the present day standings of the politics and peoples throughout the region. The culmination of distinct historical attributes: conquest, colonialism, mercantilism, captalism, industrialism, and globalism, serve as the developmental path
McCain\'s Campaign John McCain’s campaign for the office of president of the United States has been carefully thought out in order to attract the largest possible amount of voters. As in all campaigns, everything that the candidate has said and done has been screened and planned so as to not offend or scare off any potential voters. Because of the campaign’s thoughtfulness and attention to detail, the McCain campaign has been mostly successful up until this point. Until now John McCain and his
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world stage for more than half of the century and the most successful political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of NATO and its members. The following report
North Korea The United States has been presented a dilemma towards its foreign policy with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea). North Korea’s alleged launch of a new Taepo-Dong I missile on August 31, 1998 has heightened American worries and escalated an already tense situation with North Korea. The United States response towards this new missile, which could possibly be able to reach the edges of both Alaska and Hawaii , will be a factor in its decision on whether or not to
Orientalism Said describes Orientalism as, ...the generic term that I have been employing to describe the Western approach to the Orient; Orientalism is the discipline by which the Orient was (and is) approached systematically, as a topic of learning, discovery and practice. By this, Said is saying because we treated the East like a school subject, we have learned to treat the East as an inferior. Which has developed into something called Orientalism. The poets, authors and statesmen of the n
Oval Office President Clinton contacted Dick Morris, an associate of seventeen years, one month before the 1994 gubernatorial elections with one goal in mind, to win the 1996 presidential election. His intentions were to get Morris’s help to win back the presidency and redefine his image as the Commander in Chief. With the notion of the permanent campaign, Clinton was able to gain back public appeal and win the 1996 election with ease. Recent history has shown that presidents can not only be br
Politic Science Thursday October 24 1929 is a Day that was later known as Black Thursday. Black Thursday was the day a small crash occurred at the New York stock exchange. However Black Thursday Would turn out to be nothing compared to what awaited America and its economy on the following Tuesday. America was about to enter her darkest days the Great Depression. Sena Peterson my great grandmother was just an eighteen-year-old young lady living on her fathers corn farm in Iowa. Far away fr
Political Parties Since the last of the Whig party left office in 1852, the American political system has been primarily a two party system. The Democrats and the Republicans have been the two parties fighting for the Presidency since that time. There have been many other parties since that time, but mainly, these two have gone unopposed against each other. However, how much good do these parties actually do? Would our country be run as effectively if the presence of political parties was no lo
Politics And Panama Canal During the Spanish-American War the warship Oregon was summoned from the West Coast. The trip took two months to travel 14,000 miles around Cape Horn to the Atlantic. (The American Journey 741) How was the United States supposed to defend it shores if it took ships that long to get between them? The United State had to build a canal through Central America; national security depended on it. The Politics of the Panama Canal are confusing. This confusion includes the bui
Politics Of 1960s As the nineteen fifties turned into the early sixties, the United States remained the same patriotic, harmonious society of the previous decade; often a teen\'s most difficult decision was choosing what color lipstick to wear to the prom. Yet after 1963, a dramatic change slowly developed in the cultural, social, and political beliefs of America, particularly the youth. The death of President Kennedy, the new music, the quest for civil rights, the popularity of mind-altering dr
Presidential Powers In every government there is a ceremonial head of the government who is the symbol of all the people in the nation. As Howard Taft put it, The personal embodiment and representative of their dignity and majesty (McClenaghan, pg. 316). That person is the Chief of State or more commonly known as the President. One of the main factors that cause the presidents to be viewed as a symbol of the American community is the president\'s ceremonial duties which are named in the Consti
Presidential Succession Presidential Succession, is a term that describes the arrangements under which presidential authority in the United States may be transferred other than by means of the quadrennial presidential ELECTION. Specifically, it embraces those procedures that apply to cases involving the death, resignation, removal, or inability of a PRESIDENT or VICE PRESIDENT, and the death or failure to qualify of a president-elect or vice president-elect. These procedures are defined in thre
Racism The Aryan Nations. The American Nazi Party. What are these groups? Why are they present in a land of supposed equality of all men? They are there because there are millions of Americans that believe in their message of white pride. The African American population is growing and Americans are now a mixed group of people. Black people are white people\'s neighbours, doctors, friends. With a growing unity between the two races, why does racism continue? The answer is simple. Racists from ma
Religion And Politics The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper, the time periods of study will be broken up into three sections. Each section will give a general description of how religion affected the insti
Russia And CIS When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, due to many pressures both internal and external, the ex-soviet satellites were given their independence, much to Russia\'s dismay. A new trend towards sovereignty made it difficult for the largest country in the world to deny it\'s former members the right to separate. However, even with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russia is still heavily involved with the matters of its former soviet members. This then leaves
Second Amendment The United States of America has taken drastic steps in taking away the American peoples God given rights and Constitutional rights. The United States government is supposed to be a government of the people, by the people, for the people. There are very clear signs of a cancerous growth within our government and the citizens of America need to take preventative measures to ensure the freedom for which our founding fathers fought and died. I am speaking of numerous issues that ha
Somalia And US The desire for an organization that would help the international communityavoid future conflicts and the recognized need for a global body that would promote international economic and social cooperation led the powerful states emerging from the rubble of WWII to develop the United Nations. The newly formed United Nations represented an expression of hope for the possibilities of a new global security arrangement and for fostering the social and economic conditions necessary
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3d PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. As the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, he is probably the most conspicuous champion of political and spiritual freedom in his country\'s history. He voiced the aspirations of the new nation in matchless phrase, and one may doubt if any other American has been so often quoted. As a public official--legislator, diplomat, and executive--he served the province
US Government History In this essay I will give a short history of the government in United States of America (U.S.). Then I will describe each of the three branches of government in the U.S. and the relationship between them. In principle, the U.S. is a democratic republic, they govern themselves by choosing their leaders by secret ballot, and these leaders in turn make the rules. Americans started governing themselves as a nation on July 4th, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was s
US Supreme Court The Supreme Court is the highest governing body that is known to us as the people of the United States of America. In the 1998-99 term, the Supreme Court is slated to hear cases on subjects as diverse as business monopolies, labor unions, health insurers, initiative petitions and due process. The justices will also revisit the issue of sexual harassment. The following will just be an overview of how the Supreme Court operates. I will try to point out many things throughout the
War Laws The term laws of war refers to the rules governing the actual conduct of armed conflict. This idea that there actually exists rules that govern war is a difficult concept to understand. The simple act of war in and of itself seems to be in violation of an almost universal law prohibiting one human being from killing another. But during times of war murder of the enemy is allowed, which leads one to the question, if murder is permissible then what possible laws of war could there b
Women In Combat The idea of women in combat is not unusual anymore. Although American women have, for a long time, served as nurses, and as other roles during wartime, they were not officially enrolled in the armed forces until World War I. During this time women served as clerks and secretaries, some being assigned to translation, recruitment, and other tasks which were usually assigned to men (Wekesser, 2). The women were not given rank or benefits, and after the war was over they were not
Women\'s Movements Before the women\'s movements in the United States, women who were treated unfairly and not given any equal rights as men had suffered great tragedy. There tragedy was the way the society had treated them cruelly such as 1women once only had the option of teaching, and nursing, as career opportunities. Women would usually have the role of staying home and taking care of children and the home. Now after the first and second waves of the women\'s movements, women now are treate
Woodrow Wilson President Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal representative of the people. No one but the President, he said, seems to be expected ... to look out for the general interests of the country(Internet 1). He developed a program of progressive reform and asserted international leadership in building a new world order. In 1917 he proclaimed American\'s entrance into World War I a crusade to make the world safe for democracy. Wilson had seen the difficulties of war. H
Adoption And Identity Formation There has been an enormous amount of research conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity formation. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees and birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following questio
Aggression And Its Intricacies Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must apply a working definition of aggression. Aggressive behavior is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat. (7) David G. Myer
Battered Women In 1991, Governor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered women\'s syndrome. A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass. Gen. L. ch. 233 _ 23E (1993), which permits the introduction of evidence of abuse in criminal trials. T
Bipolar Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painful
Child Development Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They grow physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. In this paper I will discuss the physical growth and development patterns of an infant all the way through adulthood. Development is the baby\'s increased skill in using various body parts. When dealing with a development of a child there are three basic development rules. First development rule: This rule says that babies develop in the head r