Aztec Indians The Aztec Indians, who are known for their domination of southern and central Mexico, ruled between the 14th and 16th centuries. They built a great empire and developed very modernized ways of doing things. They had phenomenal architectural skills and waterway systems. The Aztec Indians also had very developed social class and government systems and practiced a form of religion. To begin with, the Aztecs were very skilled in the art of Architecture and waterway systems. "An exampl
Maya And Aztec Plundering and carnage were the overlying results of the Spanish conquest of MesoAmerica beginning in 1519. The ensuing years brought many new "visitors," mostly laymen or officials in search of wealth, though the Christianity toting priest was ever present. Occasionally a man from any of these classes, though mainly priests would be so in awe of the civilization they were single handedly massacring that they began to observe and document things such as everyday life, religious r
Duomo Of Florence In the Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, there is a cathedral church whose octagonal dome, built without the aid of scaffolding, was considered the greatest engineering feat of the early Renaissance. Dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, Our Lady of the Flower, it is also known as the Duomo, after the Italian word for cathedral. Created by many great Early Modern artists, this piece of architecture is a perfect example the Renaissance style. We can come to a better understand
Gothic Architecture Vs. Egyptian Architecture The sediment richens the soil year after year by the Nile that floods the valley and rises twenty to thirty feet high. African villagers expect the seasonal rains; the precipitation determines the crops productivity. The valley cut by this dominating river is also where one of the greatest Neolithic civilizations grew. The originals were of mixed races but all derived from the white races. By 4000 B.C. these egger people started using copper and gol
Gothic Cathedrals Tracery is particularly characteristic of Gothic architecture. Example: The tracery in a rose window of Washington Cathedral, Washington, DC. This graphic displays four different photos-- they amount to a zoom into the tracery. Also see fenestration, foil, quatrefoil, and stained glass. rose window - Large circular windows of tracery and stained glass found in Gothic cathedrals. Also called a wheel window. Examples: transept - An aisle between the apse and nave. It cuts across
Gothic Influence The church in the Middle Ages was a place that all people, regardless of class, could belong to. As a source of unity, its influence on art and architecture was great during this time. As society drew away from the feudal system of the Romanesque period, a new spirit of human individualism began to take hold; alas, the birth of Gothic. Here, the Church became a place where humanity became more acceptable, alas becoming the ideal place to visual such new ideals. The beauty and e
Korean Temple Buddhist monks, those shaven-headed figures in gray robes, choose to leave this earthly world (that is, mundane society) in favor of an ascetic existence based on prayer and self-denial. But now their unworldly lifestyle is becoming a tourist product... with the monastics\' approval! Monastic life as a tourist attraction? It\'s part of a global craze for monasticism. From the Himalayas to the Hudson River, monks are in. Japanese salarymen are chucking their jobs and fleeing to mon
Louis Kahn Standing alone against the endless blue sea, the Salk Institute by Louis I. Kahn is one of a kind. "Louis Kahn\'s Salk Institute for Biological Studies on the Pacific coast near La Jolla aspires within its own spirit to an order achieved through clarity, definition, and consistency of application"(Heyer 195). To many, this magnificent structure may seem out of place, but it works well with the surrounding environment because of the spatial continuity that it possesses. The relation t
Music Of Architecture Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the immeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, " The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these "thoughts" are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the "music" of architecture as we move through spaces while arcs of sunlight beam white light and shadow
Palazzo Ruccelai The Palazzo Ruccelai was one of the first works by Leon Battista Alberti. He was an Italian architect, architectural theorist, and universal genius. Albert was the most important early Renaissance architect after Filippo Brunelleschi (Gympel, 44). The "Palazzo" originated in Florence. The monumental private building is derived from "palatium." This Latin word comes from the Roman hill which Emperor Augustus and his successors lived. During the 13th and 14th centuries, many of I
Roman Architecture A great deal of conjecture has been expended on the question as to the genesis of the Roman basilica. For present purposes it may be sufficient to observe that the addition of aisles to the nave was so manifest a convenience that it might not improbably have been thought of, even had models not been at hand in the civic buildings of the Empire. The most suitable example that can be chosen as typical of the Roman basilica of the age of Constantine is the church of S. Maria Mag
Roman Coliseum Architecture of the ancient Roman Empire is considered one of the most impressive of all time. The city of Rome once was home to more than one million residents in the early centuries AD1. The Romans had a fine selection of building monuments in the city of Rome including the forums for civic services, temples of worship, and amphitheaters for recreation and play. The Romans made great use and pioneered great architecture mechanisms including arches, columns, and even mechanical
Skyscrapers The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. Benny Louie Humanity 450 Dr. Maureen Schmid 17 May 1999 The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. In our modern society, the architectural design of skyscrapers is changing the downtown landscape of metropolitan areas. Due to the change of technologies, it has changed the archit
Truss The definition of a truss is any of various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of straight members subject only to longitudinal compression, tension, or both: functions as a beam or cantilever to support bridges, roofs, etc. Trusses are the most commonly used structural device used in architecture today. Trusses are used in almost every thing they are in your attic, barns, buildings, and bridges. A truss is used in architecture and engineering,
Women In Architecture Of what historic and contemporary concern is it that the architecture profession has been, and continues to be, strongly male dominated in Australia (currently 90% of registered architects in NSW are men). Ideally, what proportion of the profession should women occupy and why? From the start of human history, we always experience certain level of inequality between sexes. It can be seen everywhere around the world and is a concern to everyone, both men and women. This ineq
Bansonyi Art can be used to study the progression of a civilization through time. Art is usually used to express oneís beliefs religiously, politically, and sometimes as a source of communication, which is accomplished through imagery. Symbols in works of art can be related to nature and myths.1 From the beginning of Chinese history, art and philosophy worked hand-in-hand with the creation of a work of art. Chinese art was used as evidence of a personís behavior and attitude towards nature and
Baroque Art During the Baroque period, new ideas and views of society and of religion spurred up. To express these new ideas many artists used the ideas of past artists to further expand their own motives. " If I have seen further (than you and Descartes), it is by standing upon the shoulders of Giants." Sir Isaac Newton, 1676 The artists of the baroque period were using past ideals as a ladder to the prevalent and the gallant. Four pieces of art that exceplified the usage of the great minds of
Braque Although George Braque (May 13, 1882 - Aug. 31, 1963) was one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century his name is all but forgotten. He has received little credit for his efforts towards the creation of analytic cubism. Many art historians believe that his prestigious role as father of analytic cubism was cut short because of Picassoís fame. Many arguments have arisen asking the question: "Who is the father of cubism?" There is no doubt that Picasso started the spark wh
"Chance Meeting" By Martin Lewis \'Chance Meeting\' is a dry point etching print by Martin Lewis and was created in the early 1930\'s. The subjects are two figures, male and female, who have happened upon each other in the setting of a public sidewalk at the entrance of a storefront. It may be a dichotomy in terms to call the piece, "Idealized Urban Realism," though Lewis\' work does harmonize well with the Urban Realist movement surfacing in this period with artists such as Edward Hopper. It a
Egyptian Pyramids When most people think of Ancient Egypt they think of Pyramids. To construct such great monuments required a mastery of architecture, social organization, and art that few cultures of that period could achieve. The oldest pyramid, the Step-Pyramids, grow out of the abilities of two men, King Djoser and Imhotep. Djoser, the second king of 3rd dynasty, was the first king to have hired an architect, Imhotep, to design a tomb (Time-Life Books, 74). Imhotep was known as the father
Escher Maurits Cornelius Escher was born on June 17th, 1898 in Leeuwarden, Netherlands. His father was a civil engineer. Escherís great skill for art and drawing was realized at an early age. This led his father to decide to send him to study at the School of Architecture and Decorative Arts in Haarlem. But, when he was 21 years old, Escher gave up architecture to study in the field of graphic arts. Escher spent most of his life travelling in Europe looking for inspiration for his works. In 192
Filippo Brunelleschi Use of perspective in art finds its root in one man, Filippo Brunelleschi. Although we donít know for sure, it is likely that Brunelleschi also invented linear, or scientific perspective. Donatelloís "The Feast of Herod" is the earliest surviving example of scientific perspective, which is established through the use of a "vanishing point", an imaginary single point on the page in which all the parallel lines meet. Donatelloís Feast of Herod was a groundbreaking work by tha
Islamic Art And Architecture Islamic art and architecture points to the artistic accomplishments in the lands where Islam was the dominant religion and from the seventh century on. These lands were the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Anatolia and the Balkans, and central and northern India. All the monuments and artistic objects, which may have been made with different materials and techniques, have a common artistic language. Islamic art was an art created for the setting of every day life.
Italian Renaissance The ancestors of man were experimenting with art over 12 thousand years ago, paintings as far back as 15,000 to 10,000 BC have been found in caves. Our history of painting was slow to mature into the art we know and appreciate today. The most prolific period was the Renaissance period, with some of the best known masters being represented by this period. The Italian Renaissance was as the name implies the rebirth of painting. This does not imply that all the advances of pain
Italian Renaissance As the fourteenth century ushered out the Middle Ages in Italy, a new period of cultural flowering began, known as the Renaissance. This period in history was famous for its revival of classical themes and the merging of these themes with the Catholic Church. These themes of humanism, naturalism, individualism, classicism, and learning and reason appeared in every aspect of the Italian Renaissance, most particularly in its art. Humanism can be defined as the idea that human
Mayan Art Deep within the jungle of Mexico and extending into the limestone shelf of the Yucatan peninsula lie the mysterious temple and pyramids of the Maya. While Europe was still in the midst of the dark ages, these amazing people had mapped the heavens, evolved the only true writing system native to the Americas and were masters of mathematics. They invented the calendars we use today. Across a huge jungle landscape with an amazing degree of architectural perfection and variety. Their legac
Modernist Art In Europe Herbert Herbertís thesis of his essay is to investigate the arrival of the machine and modern art and its complexities. During WWI, modernist painting and sculpture paid major attention to machinery, science and industry. Modern art during that time has become a central factor in our culture due to its dominance in public art, museums, media and literature. Herbert brings in background information and stated the avant-garde of Pisarro, van Gogh, Monet, Renoir, etc. The i
Polish Art On the 26th of January I decided to visit for the first time the San Diego Museum of Arts. When I came upon the museum which from a view was an astonishing piece of architectural exquisiteness. This extravagant building was amazingly distinguishable from all the other ill-rooted, stucco wall structures surroundings. I arrived at the admission desk and upon purchasing my 6$ ticket the young lady told me that there is an exhibition on Art in Poland. I was still thinking that the museum
Roman Collusiums Architecture of the ancient Roman Empire is considered one of the most impressive of all time. The city of Rome once was home to more than one million residents in the early centuries AD1. The Romans had a fine selection of building monuments in the city of Rome including the forums for civic services, temples of worship, and amphitheaters for recreation and play. The Romans made great use and pioneered great architecture mechanisms including arches, columns, and even mechanica
Social Trends In Art Art is something which can be analyzed to give deeper insight as to the common values and beliefs shared by the members of a certain society. Regardless of the place of origin or the time period of a form of art, it will always be a reflection of the social structure in which it\'s creator/s lived. However, the way the artist perceives the culture common to his time period is very relative. People pertaining to a higher social class had different values and ideologies than
Titian\'s Altarpieces What was the importance of these two altarpieces for the development of painting in Venice, both from a stylistic and iconographic point of view? It has been said that Titianís Assunta, which adorns the high altar, and Pesaro (on the left aisle of the chapel of the Immaculate Conception) stand mid-way between the past and the future of Venetian painting. This infers that Titian drew on established traditions learnt from his masters Bellini and Giorgione, and imbued his work
"Venus Asleep" Of Paul Delvaux Paul Delvaux (1897-1994) Venus Asleep 1. What Does the art work look like? describe it. This piece of art work in my opinion looks like a dream. The art work has a certain disoriented charm. It has mainly all dark colors and uses these dark colors to contrast with the light skin pigment of the people in the painting. The painting has a calm erotic nude lady sleeping on a very formal looking couch or day bed. If the picture is read as this ladies dream then it appea
Vittore Carpaccio Vittore Carpaccio was born around the year 1460 near Venice, Italy. They didnít keep birth records then, so this date is an estimate. Vittore knew from a very young age that he wanted to be a painter when he was older. He couldnít pay attention in school because he was always drawing or sketching on his papers. As a young man, Carpaccio was greatly influenced by two Venetian painters. These two painters were Gentile Bellini and Giovanni Bellini. Carpaccio was influenced greatl
US Airlines Deregulation of the U.S. airline industry has resulted in ticket prices dropping by a third, on an inflation-adjusted basis. As a result some 1.6 million people fly on 4,000 aircraft every day. Airlines carried 643 million passengers in 1998, a 25% increase over 1993 and the FAA estimates that the nation°¶s airline system will have to accommodate 917 million passengers by the year 2008. The growth in air travel threatens to overwhelm the presently inadequate air traffic control syst
Frederick Chopin The 1830s have been called "the decade of the piano" because during that period the piano and the music written for it played a dominant role in European musical culture. The piano had, of course, already been popular for more than half a century, but by the third decade of the nineteenth century, changes in the instrument and its audience transformed the piano\'s role in musical life. As the Industrial Revolution hit its stride, piano manufacturers developed methods for buildi
Hitler On April 30,1945, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in an underground bunker near the center of Berlin. His dream of a Thousand - Year Reich" lay in ruins. German cities had been bombed, German armies captured or destroyed. A week after Hitlers death, Germany offered unconditional surrender to Allied forces. The nightmare of World War 2 in Europe came to an end. Hitler was the only man responsible for the horrors of World War 2. But it was his dream of world domination that possessed German
Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, is perhaps the most distinguished author of American Literature. Next to William Shakespeare, Clemens is arguably the most prominent writer the world has ever seen. In 1818, Jane Lampton found interest in a serious young lawyer named John Clemens. With the Lampton family in heavy debt and Jane only 15 years of age, she soon married John. The family moved to Gainesboro, Tennessee where Jane gave birth to Orion Clemens. In the summe
Michelangelo Michelangelo (1475-1564), arguably one of the most inspired creators in the history of art and, with Leonardo da Vinci, the most potent force in the Italian High Renaissance. As a sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, he exerted a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent Western art in general. A Florentine - although born March 6, 1475, in the small village of Caprese near Arezzo - Michelangelo continued to have a deep attachment to his city, its art, and its
Homecoming Plain Homecoming\'s most important part takes place a few hours outside of Manhattan at Annette\'s, the Grandmother of the Byrne family, elegant country home. Most of the family, Gene, Ellen, Mark, Aaron, Brenda, Cynthia, Andrew, live in Manhattan. Lewis and Daisy live in Washington. It happens during the winter. Annette Byrne is the mother of Gene and Lewis. The two brothers grew up close and worked together in an architecture firm. One evening at an opening party, for a hotel that
Railway Journey By Schivelbusch The thesis for Schivelbuschís book The Railway Journey seems to be that the railroad altered the travelerís perceptions of space, time, distance, nature and the senses. Although the means of a quick and reliable mode of transport was and is an important part of industrialization, it denaturalized and desensualized the passengers (Schivelbusch 20). Shrinking and reshaping the world it touches with industrial fingers and alienating the riders to the world around th
Julius Robert Oppenheimer Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American physicist and government adviser, who directed the development of the first atomic bombs. To scientists, he was not only the builder of the atomic bomb and a pioneer in atomic energy, but a master of many languages, a good conversationalist and a brilliant mathematician. He was also a writer, and an expert in both the history of architecture and the religions of the world. Oppenheimer, who was born in New York City on April 22,
Citizen Kane The classic masterpiece, Citizen Kane (1941), is probably the world\'s most famous and highly rated film, with its many remarkable scenes, cinematic and narrative techniques and innovations. The director, star, and producer were all the same individual - Orson Welles (in his film debut at age 25), who collaborated with Herman J. Mankiewicz on the script and with Gregg Toland as cinematographer. Within the maze of its own aesthetic, Citizen Kane develops two interesting themes. The
Client Server Computing Client/Server computing has become the model for new information architecture. This technology will take enterprise wide computing into the 21st century. Computing power has rapidly become distributed and interconnected throughout many organizations through networks of all types of computers. Networked computer systems are taking the form of client/server computing. With client/server computing, end users can handle a broad range of information processing tasks. This inc
Computer Upgrade With increasing popularity of computer games, and multimedia home PC users often need an unexpensive computer system upgrade. By building a custom computer one is able to combine componenets, and operating system to provide maximal gaming performance. Computers are often called number manipulators, because of their ability to run millions of mathematical operations per second (White 43). Computers use binary system of numbers, which allows them to operate system of microscopic s
Computer Viruses In the past decade, computer and networking technology has seen enormous growth. This growth however, has not come without a price. With the advent of the "Information Highway", as itís coined, a new methodology in crime has been created. Electronic crime has been responsible for some of the most financially devastating victimizations in society. In the recent past, society has seen malicious editing of the Justice Department web page (1), unauthorized access into classified go
DOS And Unix Compare and Contrast Microsoft DOS with UNIX As is suggestive of its name, an operating system (OS) is a collection of programs that operate the personal computer (PC). Its primary purpose is to support programs that actually do the work one is interested in, and to allow competing programs to share the resources of the computer. However, the OS also controls the inner workings of the computer, acting as a traffic manager which controls the flow of data through the system and initi
Internet History In 1973, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective was to develop communication protocols which would allow networked computers to communicate transparently across multiple, linked packet networks. This was called the Internetting project and the system of networks which emerged from the research was known as the "Internet." T
Internet History In the early 1960\'s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) became very concerned about the possible effects of nuclear attack on its computing facilities. As a result, it began to examine ways to connect their computers to each other and to weapons installations that were distributed all over the world. The DOD charged the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (now known as DARPA) to fund research that would lead to the creation of a worldwide network. The Advanced Research
Linux And Windows NT Forget the browser wars. This year\'s big nerd battle is the server shootout between Linux and Windows NT - and it\'s not just a bunch of geeks nit-picking. While both offer more affordable platforms for Web service than in the past, Linux and NT are polar opposites on almost every other level. They look different, run differently, support different software, and cost money in different places. So far though, most press coverage of the Linux-NT debate has focused on the com
Microprocessors Evolution Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. The Microprocessor has been around since 1971 years, but in the last few years it has changed the American calculators to video games and computers (Givone 1). Many microprocessors have been manufactured for all sorts of products; some have succeeded and some have not. This paper will discuss th