Mayan Art Deep within the jungle of Mexico and extending into the limestone shelf of the Yucatan peninsula lie the mysterious temple and pyramids of the Maya. While Europe was still in the midst of the dark ages, these amazing people had mapped the heavens, evolved the only true writing system native to the Americas and were masters of mathematics. They invented the calendars we use today. Across a huge jungle landscape with an amazing degree of architectural perfection and variety. Their legac
Big Bang Theory It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the
Black Holes General aspect of searching black holes and understanding of the subject. For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at
Black Holes Black holes are objects so dense that not even light can escape their gravity, and since nothing can travel faster than light, nothing can escape from inside a black hole . Loosely speaking, a black hole is a region of space that has so much mass concentrated in it that there is no way for a nearby object to escape its gravitational pull. Since our best theory of gravity at the moment is Einstein\'s general theory of relativity, we have to delve into some results of this theory to u
Comets The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases, and dust. They have also been given the names "dirty snowballs" or "icy mud balls." The typical comet is less than 10 kilometers across. T
Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Copernicus was born in Poland in 1473, he started his education at Cracow University. There he studied mathematics and optics. From here he went to Italy, where he was appointed as a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg, where he spent a comfortable academic life studding. Copernicus had some small hobbies while at the cathedral, he painted, and frequently translated Greek poetry into Latin. One other hobby that just wasn\'t small enough to be called a ho
Extra Solar Planets Earths Beyond Earth: The Search for Other Worlds In early 1990, the first extrasolar planet was detected, surprising everyone by its strangeness. More planets have now been discovered outside our solar system than in it. These planets present many great mysteries to the astronomical world. Extrasolar planets are planets that exist outside our solar system; they are orbiting a star other than our Sun. So far, eighteen have been found, all of them defying well-established theo
Galileo And Church Galileo, Science and the Church, by Jerome J. Langford, are about the trials and tribulations of Galileo with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1600ís. The church did not agree with Galileoís ideas; mainly theories associated with Copernican astronomy. The primary intention of Langford is to bring the truth of Galileoís trials to his readers, and to show that ultimately Galileo was correct in his theories and was not trying to go against the churchesí belief. Galileo was merel
Galileo And Stars I feel that the motivation of Galileoís pursuits in Astronomy and stargazing was driven by his desire to be financially successful. Galileo was an extremely ambitious and clearly independent individual whose methods of generating scientific data epitomizes a survival of the fittest like struggle between all of the prominent scientists of his time. During Galileo\'s life there was no gray area of wealth like the middle class of today, and therefore you were either rich or poor.
Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy. Galileo pioneered "experimental scientific method," and was the first to use a refracting telescope to make important astronomical discoveries. In 1604 Galileo learned of the invention of the telescope in Holland. From the barest description he constructed a vastly superior model. With it he made a series of profound discoveries, including the moons of planet Jupiter and the phases of the planet Venus (similar to thos
Heliocentrism The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a center; appearing as if seen from the sun\'s center.(Webster,447) The heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now known as the Copernican Revolution. Heliocentrism was proven true by the discoveries of Galileo, Kepler,
Jupiter Moons Jupiter, the largest of the Jovian planets, reigns supreme throughout the solar system. Named after the Roman god Jove, the ruler of Olympus; "Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and is also the largest planet in the Earth\'s solar system. It is 318 times moremassive than Earth and is two thirds of the planetary mass in the solar system. Jupiter\'s surface, unlike earth, is gaseous and not a solid. It is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium with traces of methane, ammonia, water
SETI Program Bertrand Russell wrote, "There are two possibilities. Maybe we are alone. Maybe we are not. Both are equally frightening (Jakosky 1)." The question of life in the universe is one that leaves many in a state of bewilderment. It becomes even more interesting when it leads to another question Ė that of intelligent life in the universe. Finding other intelligent civilizations among the interstellar space would greatly affect every aspect of our existence. Conversely, not finding such a
Shen Kua Astronomer, Shen Kua was born in China in the year 1026. His family had an unbroken tradition of being civil servants. Thus his father was a local administrator of many posts from Szechwan in the west to the international port of Amoy. At Sixteen years old Shen Kua left his home to travel with his father from post to post. While traveling with his father, Shen Kua learned the responsibilities of a local administrator. These responsibilities include a broad range of technical and manage
Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe Tyge (Latinized as Tycho) Brahe was born on 14 December 1546 in Skane, then in Denmark, now in Sweden. He was the eldest son of Otto Brahe and Beatte Bille, both from families in the high nobility of Denmark. He was brought up by his paternal uncle JŲrgen Brahe and became his heir. He attended the universities of Copenhagen and Leipzig, and then traveled through the German region, studying further at the universities of Wittenberg, Rostock, and Basel. During this period
Socrates Socrates is a noteworthy and important historical figure as a philosopher, because of his and his pupilsí influence on the development of the philosophical world. His teachings, famous arguments, and ideas began the outgrowth of all later western philosophies. Born in 469 BC just outside of Athens, Socrates was brought up properly, and thoroughly educated. He was raised as most Athenians; developing both physical and mental strengths. Socrates then went on to learn from Archelaus the ph
Willa Cather There are few female authors that have had an impact on literature as great as that of Willa Cather. Not only was she an exquisite author, but she broke through into writing during a time when few female authors were successful. Her life, which was directly influential to her writing, was of a simple nature. However, she was able to over come a drab, mundane life, and turn her experiences into stories that would be enjoyed by many generations. Willa Siebert Cather was born in her m
From The Earth To The Moon I believe Verne intended this book chiefly to be a satire of some people living at his time who were unable to accept the peaceful condition of the world. The Gun Club is nothing more than a group of disfigured and excitable old war mongers, who, since there was no war, needed to create some grand project as an outlet for their destructive energy. He also could have been satirizing the attitude of greatness that he perceived Americans to have about themselves and thei
Guliver\'s Travels Swift was dean of St. Patrick\'s Cathedral in Dublin when his novel came out. Since in this book he wrote about and often harpooned-prominent political figures, he published the book anonymously. While most readers were trying like mad to find out who the author was. Swift\'s close friends had fun keeping the secret. Londonwas stunned with thoughts about the author\'s identity, as well as those of some of his characters. Swift\'s dying years were a torment. He suffered awful
Canterbury Tales The Millerís Tale, as opposed to other tales that we have read so far, is filled with double meanings that one must understand to catch the crudeness and vulgarity that make the tale what it is. The fact that The Monkís Tale should have followed The Knightís Tale should tell you something about the Miller. The Miller ended up telling the second tale because he was drunk and demanded to go after the knight or he would leave the group (3132-33). The Reeve told the Miller to shut
Alexander The Great Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a military lea
History Cheat Note 1. Justinianís court was much like the Easternís rule; the subjects were spaced from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even though the common language was Greek. 2. ∑ 622- Heraclius opened a successful attack on the Persians. ∑ 628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was signed in favor of Heraclius ∑ 632- Muhammadís followers conquered and ran the Empire. ∑ 717-718- Leo III beat back Muslim attack on Constantinople. 3. Iconoclastic policy under Leo II
Rome Builders The Ancient Roman culture had a direct impact on how we view art, literature, architecture, education and religion. Early Roman civilizations were very sophisticated and idealistic. They build great architectural buildings and performed famous playwrights at these ancient places. Romans were considered to most advanced civilization of their time. With beautiful statues, well designed buildings, and some of the greatest philosophers came from Rome. One of the most noticeable charac
Mexico Mexico is our neighbor to the south. The United States was once part of Mexico. The country is a place for tourism and vacations for us. For the Mexicans, itís home. They live different lives then us. Near the year 7000 B.C., Indians learned to grow plants for food. In time they were able to settle in villages. Those villages grew into towns. During the years 250 to 900 A.D. , the Indians lived in the "Classic Period" in Mexican history. During the time, the Mayas built huge pyramids and
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene which is now in Libya in North Africa. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. Eratosthenes then spent some years studying in Athens. The library at Alexandria was planned by Ptolemy I Soter and the project came to fruition under
Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos is often described as the first pure mathematician. He is an extremely important figure in the development of mathematics yet we know relatively little about his mathematical achievements. Unlike many later Greek mathematicians, where at least we have some of the books which they wrote, we have nothing of Pythagoras\'s writings. The society which he led, half religious and half scientific, followed a code of secrecy which certainly means that today Pythagoras is a
Pythagorean Theorem The Pythagorean Theorem is a geometrical expression used often in math and physics. It used to 2 2 2 find the unknown side of a right triangle. The exponential form of this theorem a + b = c . That is the equation you use when you are looking for the unknown side of a right triangle, and it is what Iíll demonstrate on the attached exhibit. The upside down capital L in the bottom of the left hand corner indicates that sides A & B are the legs of the triangle. Since we know si
Egyptian Pyramids Who built the Egyptian pyramids? For centuries, the Egyptian Pyramids and the Sphinx have stood a silent testimony to a great and powerful civilization long since ground to dust. But behind the great walls of the Pyramids and this long lasting silence, mysteries are still unrevealed and the explanation of these mysteries is a set of theories based on observation and on the printed texts on the Pyramids walls. One great mystery was the one dealing with the building of the Pyram
Aristotle Aristotle was born in 384 BC and lived until 322 BC. He was a Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato being considered the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. When he was 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato\'s Academy. He stayed for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his named
Descarte\'s Cartesian Doubt In his first meditation, Descartes sets out with amazing clarity and persistence to clear himself of every false idea that he has acquired previous to this, and determine what he truly knows. To rid him of these "rotten apples" he has developed a method of doubt with a goal to construct a set of beliefs on foundations which are indubitable. On these foundations, Descartes applies three levels of skepticism, which in turn, generate three levels at which our thoughts m
God Existence The existence of God has been a question since the idea of God was conceived Descartes tries to prove God\'s existence, and to show that there is without a doubt something external to ones own existence. He is looking for a definite certainty, a foundation for which he can base all of his beliefs and know that they are true. Descartes\' overall project is to find a definite certainty on which he can base all his knowledge and beliefs. Descartes attacks the principles that support
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and
God Existence Proofs Either God exists or He doesn\'t. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to God\'s existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. It is far from a "moot" question, for if God does exist, then nothing else really matters; if He does not exist, then nothing really matters at all. If He does exist, then there is an eternal heaven to be gained (Hebrews 11:16) and an eternal Hell to be avoided (Revelation 21:8). The question for God\'s existen
Photography Photography is a technique of producing permanent images on sensitized surfaces by means of the photochemical action of light or other forms of radiant energy. In today\'s society, photography plays important roles as an information medium, as a tool in science and technology, and as an art form, and it is also a popular hobby. It is essential at every level of business and industry, being used in advertising, documentation, photojournalism, and many other ways. Scientific research,