Biology

Cultural Revolt Of 1920s The 1920\'s were times of cultural revolution. The times were changing in many different ways. Whenever the times change, there is a clash between the "old" and the "new" generations. The 1920\'s were no exception. In Dayton, Tennessee, 1925, a high school biology teacher was arrested. He was arrested because he taught the theory of evolution. The teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of having violated the Butler Act. This was a Tennessee law that forbade the teaching o
Manhattan Project The research for the first Atomic bomb was done in the United States, by a group of the best scientists; this research was given the name of "The Manhattan Project". On Monday July 16th, 1945, a countdown for the detonation of the first atomic bomb took place near Los Alamos, New Mexico. This atomic bomb testing would forever change the meaning of war. As the atomic bomb was detonated it sent shock-waves all over the world. There was endless research done on the bomb in the Un
Anthropologists Anthropologists trace the origin and evolutionary development of the human race through the study of changing physical characteristics and cultural and social institutions. Anthropological data, including that acquired by archeological techniques, may be applied to solving problems in human relations such as race and ethnic relations and education. People have always been interested in their past history. Although anthropology dates back to Aristotle, it is a commonly accepted f
Time And Culture In The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time Anthropologist Edward T. Hall entitles his first chapter "Time as Culture." An extreme stance perhaps, especially given the potency of nature\'s rhythms, but it is instructive of the extent to which experiences and conceptualizations of time and space are culturally determined. Unlike the rest of nature\'s animals, our environment is primarily man-made and symbolic in quality. As Bronowski observed in The Ascent of Man, instead
Steinbeck "I never wrote two books alike", once said John Steinbeck (Shaw, 10). That may be true, but I think that he wrote many of his novels and short stories based on many of the same views. He often focused on social problems, like the "haves" verses the "have nots", and made the reader want to encourage the underdog. Steinbeck’s back ground and concern for the common man made him one of the best writers for human rights. John Steinbeck was born in Salians, California and spent most of his
International Space Station The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. A plan like this, arranged to benefit the whole world economy, should sound like a good idea to every person, but some believe that the ISS is too risky, too ineffective, or too costly to create. Whether or not the space station is worth the money, time,
Lamont Doherty Observatory Every year the Lamont – Doherty Earth Observatory holds an open house in which scientists share their studies and really let the public see what and how they do what they do. Scientists at this research center are working together studying different fields of the Geologic sciences ranging from Oceanography, Geochemistry, Seismology, and even Marine Biology share their findings with the public. This year like every other year, they set up deferent exhibits and share th
Oceanography From Space At first thought, studying the oceans from space seems to be a bizarre idea. Space observation helps oceanographers do research with manned and unmanned space systems. The space systems can be satellites and/or space shuttles that observe various features of the ocean such as sea-surface winds, sea-surface temperatures, waves, ocean currents, frontal regions, and sea color. Technological advances have greatly improved the ability of oceanographers to gather and use infor
Herbert George Wells In History, many writers have tried to touch on stories of science fiction, but were not too successful. One man though, by the name of Herbert George Wells has been considered by some to be the father of modern science fiction.(GeoCities.com) H.G. Wells as some may call him, have had various books, and stories that has made him very famous in the great book world around the nation, as far as modern science fiction goes. Wells best know books include, " The Time Machine", "
Herbert George Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction’s fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by e
Kate Chopin Kate Chopin gives a great deal of thought in her literature to issues that she views as important. She was encouraged not to become a "useless" wife; she was also involved in the idea of becoming an independent woman (LeBlanc 1). Kate Chopin is a well-known American writer. Kate Chopin was born on February 8, 1851, in St. Louis, Missouri. At the age of 53, on August 22, 1904, she died due to cerebral hemorrhage (Hoffman 1-2). Kate is the daughter of Eliza Faris O’Flaherty and Thomas
Anthopleura Elegantissima The sea anemones that were collected for the "Clone Specific Segregation in the Sea Anemone Anthopleura elegantissima" experiment were collected by Lisbeth Francis in Pacific Grove, California (Biological Bulletin 1973, 144; 64-72). The topic of Francis’s report is the particularity of the constant anemone-free areas dividing contiguous accumulations of these anemones and the connection of these areas to the dispersion and manner of these anemones. In her report Franci
Biology Molecule Unit 1 -man is high 50’s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% 3) blood plasma - 3 litres - 20% -women contain less water than men -organisms can contain 60-80% water -bacteria have lots of water -fat cells have little -water’s properties result from its structure and molecular interactions -water is polar -polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical shape give it opposite cha
Biology Of Earth Sometime during our lives, we\'ve questioned ourselves at one point just how long has the earth existed and how did life begin? Our Biology book written by: Solomon, Berg, and Martin, shows theories that has taught us that earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old, and the earliest pieces of life form found was dated back to approximately 3.8 billion years old. This only leaves a time space of 800 million years between the formation of earth and the creation of life. Since t
Charles Darwin And Natural Selection Charles Darwin revolutionized biology when he introduced The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859. Although Wallace had also came upon this revelation shortly before Origins was published, Darwin had long been in development of this theory. Wallace amicably relinquished the idea to Darwin, allowing him to become the first pioneer of evolution. Darwin was not driven to publish his finding, which he’d been collecting for several years before
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Peter Mitchell (1920 - 1992) : Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Peter Mitchell\'s 1961 paper introducing the chemiosmotic hypothesis started a revolution which has echoed beyond bioenergetics to all biology, and shaped our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of biological energy conservation, ion and metabolite transport, bacterial motility, organelle structure and biosynthesis, membrane structure and function, homeostasis, the evolution of the eukaryote cell, and indeed
Evolution Evolution, a process of change through time, is what links together the enormous diversity of the living world. A lot of evidence is present that indicates that the earth has had a very long history and that all living things arose in the course of that history from earlier, more simpler forms. In other words, all species have descended from other species and all living things share common ancestors in the past. Basically, organisms are what they are because of their history. Today th
Living Thing Biology Living things make up the world as we know it. Living things are involved in our life constantly, seeing that we are alive. There are five characteristics that are common to all living things. Living things are made up of one or more cells. Each cell is made up of living matter and is separated by a barrier that encloses the cell from its surroundings. However, there are many different kinds of cells that make up living things. A single cell can be one organism. These organ
Marine Biology A major source of coastal pollutants, human sewage fouls bays and beaches with both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. Although billions of dollars have been invested in sewage treatment plants to treat wastewater, new and growing coastal communities have increased the amount of discharge into oceans and estuaries. The United States Office of Technology Assessment has identified thirteen hundred major industries and six hundred municipal wastewater treatment plants that discharge int
Origin Of Species Considered one of the most significant, influential, and controversial publications in history, this book, I felt would be interesting to read and learn from. Although his content in this particular book is the subject of much controversy, Darwin\'s proffesional contributions and accomplishments will remain well known and respected. Therefore, I selected The Origin of Species believing that it would prove to be a stimulating and challenging reading experience. This famous book
Platypus The platypus, apparently, is a surprisingly deep sleeper. What\'s more, it spends more of its time in so-called \'REM\' sleep than any other mammal. These are the conclusions of a study on sleep in the platypus by Jerry M. Siegel of the Sepulveda Veterans\' Affairs Medical Center, North Hills, California and colleagues. Their report appears in a special number of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society devoted to the biology of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), celebrati
Pre-Darwinism Views November 24, 1859, many people simply believed that species were created by God in their present forms, or that it was possible for organic matter to be spawned from inorganic matter. However, Charles Darwin used these ideas to create his thesis, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. The first true theories on evolution arise during the classical Greek period. On a handful of Greek philosophers believed in the theory of evolution and natural selection. Unfo
Sociobiology In the middle of this century, bot biological and cultural anthropology experiences a major change in theory. In biological anthropology, biological anthropologists adopted an approach which focused on the gene. They saw the human evolution as the process of genetic adaptation to the environment. In the mean time, there were also cultural analogies to evolution. Cultural evolution also followed a process of adaptation. In the field of anthropology, a very important theory is that o
Vitro Fertilization Human in vitro fertilization is selection of embryos for the transfer to the uterus. The eggs are surgically removed from a woman\'s ovaries and placed in a carefully prepared broth called human tubal fluid. Six hours later, the husband\'s sperm cells are added. The evidence of fertilization was detected approximately 16 hours later. Later on, the scientists select four embryos that are actively dividing and carefully inserts them into the woman\'s uterus through her cervix.
Whooping Chough Whooping cough which is also known as Pertussis is caused by infection by the Bordetella Pertussis bacteria. It is a highly contagious bacterial disease that affects the respiratory system and produces spasms of coughing that usually end in a high-pitched whooping sound. In this report I will describe how Pertussis is spread, contracted, what treatments are available for it and the prognosis for the patient. I will also tell you about the many symptoms of the disease. Etiology:
Guns Germs And Steel Why is it that Europeans ended up conquering so much of the world? Or as Yali puts it in the far beginning of the book, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own"? Despite all the contrary evidence from anthropology and human biology, many persist in attributing the differing political and economic successes of the world’s peoples to historical contingency. On the other hand though,
Time Machine By Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction\'s fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by
DNA Separation By Electrophorosis DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule which determines inherited structure of a protein. The "steps" are made of bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The sides are sugar and phosphate molecules. Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut DNA at restriction sites, leaving fragments blunt or sticky. The restriction fragments are separated using a technique called gel electrophoresis. DNA has a negative charge so
Spectrophotometery The purpose of this lab experiment is to understand the uses of spectrophotometry. This experiment concentrates on the uses of the spectrophotometer, and using this instrument to specifically determine the absorption spectrum of a cobalt chloride solution, a galactose solution, and to determine an unknown concentration of a galactose solution. Modern biologists frequently use the measurement of light absorption to determine concentration of chemicals. The technique is called
Programmer Alan Turing Alan Turing was born in London on 23 June 1912. He was the son of Julius Mathius Turing and Ethel Sara Stoney, the youngest of three children, he was born to a distinguished family. His family background includes diplomats and engineers, three of which succeeded to the Royal Society. Alan turing was educated at Sherbourne school, from 1923 to 1931. After which he studied mathematics at Kings College, Cambridge, graduating in 1935 with a B.A. He was elected a fellow of the
Education And Evolution Throughout recent history creationists and evolutionists have argued whether evolution should be a part of America\'s public education. Whether evolution is science fact, or science fiction. Evolution being a science based on statistics has some faults, although many concepts in science or math do. The process of learning about evolution is a necessary part of a well-rounded student\'s education due to the fact that it is a statistically proven science and removing it in
High School Before I started high school, elementary school teachers told me that no one cared about you at the high school. It was a different world and you had to do everything on your own. As I started my first semester, I was working with A’s and B’s, and great conduct. I learned a lot though. It was true; most teachers really didn’t care about their students and followed a lesson plan that had been in repetitive use since the 70’s. But that wasn’t a problem. I like looking at things from a
Study Guides A study guide is a teaching aid designed to help students develop reading skills needed to enhance their comprehension of the material is the textbook. Study guides can be very helpful to students who have low comprehension skills. A study guide will ensure that the student will focus their attention on what is important for them to learn. The study guide has to be relevant to the test that will be given. Many teachers will assign a specific reading for the class and many of the st
Genetic Engineering A girl is born without Tay-Sachs disease, a devasting genetic disorder that has decimated a lot of babies worldwide. A leukemia patient has defective bone marrow replaced with healthy bone marrow that was cloned from tissue from her own cells. These futuristic scenarios are not part of the debate for genetic engineering but they should be. Many people are afraid that somebody will clone Hitler or some evil person, but that is far from the fact. Genetic engineering can be use
Catch 22 A cult classic, Catch-22 is also considered a classic in American literature. It tells the story of Captain John Yossarian, bombardier in the U.S. Army Air Force in the Second World War. Yossarian sees himself as one powerless man in an overpoweringly insane situation. Heller himself was a bombardier for the U.S. Army in the Second World War, flying in combat over Italy. He flew 60 missions before he was discharged as a lieutenant at the end of the war. After the war, Heller took a job
Ernest Hemingway "Today on the five o’clock news a man goes on a rampage at the office leaving five dead." As I flip on the TV, I see another top story! A man has killed others at his workplace and taken his own life. This is becoming very old. I begin to think, "what could push this person to the point where they feel that it is necessary to take the lives of innocent people?" Even more disturbing, what could drive a person to the point that they believe it is necessary to end their own life?
Frankenstein By Mary Shelley (Author\'s Note: This was a semi-creative project. We had to address the issues in a persuasive letter rather than a boring ol\' report, so please become unconfused as far as the format..) Cal Tech Curriculum Committee: Scientists are all too ready to lock themselves away with their research, unwilling - perhaps even incapable - of seeing the consequences of their actions. It is our duty as their educators to provide them with not only a means to gain knowledge but
Herbert George Wells One of the most prolific writers of his time, H.G. ( Herbert George) Wells was able to do it all. He was universal, and could write from many different sides. He was one of the most versitile writers, as he could write like a novelist, as in the The History of Mr. Polly. He could also write short stories, like The Star, or The Door In The Wall. He was also considered to be a visionary and a dreamer, as shown throughout A Modern Utopia, and Men Like Gods. What Wells was most
Sun Also Rises Appreciation I cannot express to you how glad I am that I am taking this class. I am thoroughly enjoying Hemingway. The Sun Also Rises is one of the best books I\'ve read in quite a long time. For a while there, I was, for God knows what reason, taking Physics and Chemistry and Biology. It is really an adventure to be back with books and words and reading. I am also amazed that I never could read more of Him when it wasn\'t an assignment. And how is it that when I am told to write
War Of The World By Wells In the society today, it is very common for one to spend his or her time reading. In those types of readings, science fiction stories are one of the most common readings among many people. Science fiction, unlike any other literature, has very unique characteristics. The definition of science fiction is “fiction dealing principally with the impact of actual or imagined science on society or individuals having a science factor as an essential orienting component.” (Webst
California Condor The natural environment of the modern world has been under siege for the better part of the past century. This has been due to many factors. The waste produced by an ever-expanding human population has tainted much of the natural resources available to both humans and animals alike. Efforts to curb this waste output and to more effectively dispose of the waste have failed in the mainstream. The constant change of the common environment instituted by humans who have collectivel
Environmental Science Human kind has entered a brand new relationship with the earth. The constant and increasing pressures we are exerting threaten our planets ability to sustain life itself. Change-in the way we think , and in the way we live-is needed now. Global warming is the most urgent environmental problem the world will face in the next decade and the next century. Few, if any, trends are more important to our future than climate change caused by human activities. Scientist around the
Lake Tahoe On West Coast An Introduction Lake Tahoe is the pristine jewel of the West Coast, known around the world for its beauty. The Lake Tahoe area was even in the spotlight for the winter Olympic Games at Squaw Valley in 60\'s. Over the decades we have learned, by mistake, what needs to be done to protect the lakes\' beauty and character. The lake is foremost known for its color and clarity, and has been capitalized on for these qualities. However, upon enjoying the lake and creating a tou
Trilateral Commission Everyone remembers the times in early childhood when their dad would hand them a picture book and ask them what they saw. Unbeknownst to the child, the picture contained a hidden picture or message. Although difficult to see, it was there. Even if refused by acknowledgement, it still existed. Such is the case with today’s government. The so called "world leaders" are only puppets acting under the control of the great puppeteers. Whether it is soaring gas prices, a fluctuat
Birth Control Pill Generations of women have lived with the task of controlling the childbearing process. In 1960, the Food and Drug Administration approved the birth control pill. The approval of the pill was a great event for women. The birth control pill not only prevents pregnancy, it also treats several feminine disorders. Before the birth control pill, many women turned to illegal or self-performed abortion. In 1973 abortion was made legal by the case of Roe Vs. Wade. These events have be
Cancer Cancer has affected the lives of each and every one of us alive today. Many people have know someone with cancer, yet even those who haven’t have been bombarded with constant reminders of its terrible threat. Although cancer is often referred to as a single condition, it actually consists of more than 100 different diseases, all characterized by the uncontrolled growth, reproduction, and spread of abnormal body cells. All of these diseases are individually unique, yet the basic processes
Ebola Several years ago, a virus which originated in Africa swept the entire world killing millions. This virus is the commonly known HIV virus, the virus which causes the fatal AIDS disease. In the 1950\'s after virologists began the classification of viruses, isolated cases of what are called "hot viruses" began springing up around the world. Most of the deadly viruses were hemorrhagic fever viruses. Some different forms of hemorrhagic viruses are Hantaviruses, Arenaviruses, Flaviviruses, Bun
Genetic Disorders Alterations in human chromosomes or the deletion of an important gene product are often due to a mutation, which can spring an abundant strand of genetic mutations and improper coding. Mutations can spring from deletion, duplication or inversion of a chromosome. This improper deletion is the factor that leads to complications and ultimately genetic disorders. Turner Syndrome and Cat-cry Syndrome are both alterations of chromosome structure due to deletion. In Turner Syndrome,
Half Brained Your brain has two sides. And each has a distinctly different way of looking at the world. Do you realize that in order for you to read this article, the two sides of your brain must do completely different things? The more we integrate those two sides, the more integrated we become as people. Integration not only increases our ability to solve problems more creatively, but to control physical maladies such as epilepsy and migranes, replace certain damaged brain functions and even
Ovarian Cancer Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by