Chemistry

Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, then altered perception,
Alcoholism Alcoholism, Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative for potential abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome in babies, and nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors then altered perception, followed
Marijuana In Detail "Marijuana causes long-term changes in the brain similar to those seen with other drugs of abuse . . ." Back in the 1970s, animal experiments led to groundless fears that marijuana blew holes in brain tissue. The experiments organisations like NIDA now fund are more sophisticated but the controversy still rages. George Koob, an addiction researcher from The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, claims the new message from the animals is simple: "The more we dis
Manhattan Project The research for the first Atomic bomb was done in the United States, by a group of the best scientists; this research was given the name of "The Manhattan Project". On Monday July 16th, 1945, a countdown for the detonation of the first atomic bomb took place near Los Alamos, New Mexico. This atomic bomb testing would forever change the meaning of war. As the atomic bomb was detonated it sent shock-waves all over the world. There was endless research done on the bomb in the Un
Pantheon I chose to report on the pantheon because I’ve seen pictures and I am also very fascinated by all the Roman monuments. I looked all around the internet and libraries. The Pantheon was very hard to find information about. It was very challenging but I found enough information to complete this report. This famous building stands in the business district of Romemuch as it was built some 18 centuries ago. Amazingly, it has withstood the ravages of both the elements and war permitting a fir
Oceanography From Space At first thought, studying the oceans from space seems to be a bizarre idea. Space observation helps oceanographers do research with manned and unmanned space systems. The space systems can be satellites and/or space shuttles that observe various features of the ocean such as sea-surface winds, sea-surface temperatures, waves, ocean currents, frontal regions, and sea color. Technological advances have greatly improved the ability of oceanographers to gather and use infor
Ozone Layer Ozone derives from the greek word ozein which means to smell. It was first discovered in 1839 by Christian Friedrick Schonbein who noticed it because of its distinctive acrid smell. He discovered this at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Ozone is merely oxygen, but not the type we breath. Ozone, O3 has three compounds while oxygen has only two. Ozone is reac- tive, meaning it does not stay still, and wants to go back to its original state, with two compounds, O2. This is why o
Arthur Conan Doyle Arthur Conan Doyle was more than just an author. He was a knight, a soldier, a spiritualist, a whaler, a doctor, a journalist, and most of all, he was adventurous. He was not the quiet type of person, so he enjoyed expressing himself. Arthur Conan Doyle was born on the 22nd of May 1859 in Picardy Place, Edinburgh. The second child of Charles Altamont and Mary Foley, he was thought t have been named after the legendary medieval king, Arthur, of the Round Table. Doyle was also
Herbert George Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction’s fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by e
Isaac Asimov Isaac Asimov was born on January 2, 1920 in Petrouchi, Russia. His parents were Judah and Anna Asimov. Isaac also has a sister Veronica and a brother Stanley. In 1923 his family immigrated to the United States. He and his family grew up in Brooklyn, New York. In Brooklyn his family ran a small candy and magazine store. This is one of the places where Asimov began to learn about printing. Also it was here that Asimov learned good business and self-discipline skills (Bloom, 251). Asi
John Dalton John Dalton was born in September 5,1766 in Eaglesfield in Cumberland, England. Dalton and his family lived in a small country house. His family had been Quakers since 1690. Quakers where members of a society of friends. John had a brother named Mary and A brother named Charles, when he was born his brother was twelve years old and his sister was two years old. Dalton\'s birth was not recorded, so when he grew up older he asked one of his relatives and got and answer which was his b
Thomas Edison Thomas Edison could probably be properly called Mr. Electricity because of the many inventions and millions of dollars that he used and invested with electricity. From the invention of the light bulb, to the invention of the phonograph Thomas Edison made electricity a reality for the masses. And one of his greatest influences was from his Father a very positive man. A long with the great influence he had upon Americans and the world. He sparked the movement of today’s computer ran
Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison was one of the greatest inventors. He was a smart man. Thomas invented many things such as the light bulb and phonograph. Without the light bulb we would still be using candles and lanterns like they did many years ago. Although Thomas was deaf he worked hard and never gave up. Thomas Alva Edison was born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio. He had many family members. He had a father named Samuel Odgen Edison and a mother named Nancy Elliott Edison. Thomas\' mo
Willa Cather There are few female authors that have had an impact on literature as great as that of Willa Cather. Not only was she an exquisite author, but she broke through into writing during a time when few female authors were successful. Her life, which was directly influential to her writing, was of a simple nature. However, she was able to over come a drab, mundane life, and turn her experiences into stories that would be enjoyed by many generations. Willa Siebert Cather was born in her m
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Peter Mitchell (1920 - 1992) : Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Peter Mitchell\'s 1961 paper introducing the chemiosmotic hypothesis started a revolution which has echoed beyond bioenergetics to all biology, and shaped our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of biological energy conservation, ion and metabolite transport, bacterial motility, organelle structure and biosynthesis, membrane structure and function, homeostasis, the evolution of the eukaryote cell, and indeed
Erwin Chargaff Erwin Chargaff, born 1905 in Czernowiz, Austria, was a pioneer in biochemistry contributing to the understanding of DNA. He, in 1928, earned his doctoral degree in chemistry at the University of Vienna\'s Spath\'s Institute in 1928. Erwin began his career in biochemistry at Yale University, working under Rudolph J. Anderson from 1928 to 1930. His early work included stories of the complex lipids, the fats or fatty acids that occur in microorganisms. Helping discover the unusual f
Hormones Hormones are organic substances that are secreted by plants and animals and that function in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. They carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. The classical view of hormones is that they are transmitted to their targets in the bloodstream after discharge from the glands that secrete them. This mode of discharge (directly in
Frankenstein By Mary Shelley Story In the story "Frankenstein," written by the author Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein decided that wanted to create a being out of people that were already dead. He believed that he could bring people back from the grave. Playing with nature in such a way would make him play the role of God. With Victor Frankenstein feeling that he had no true friends, the only relief he had of expressing his feeling was through letters to Elizabeth. Elizabeth was not Victors’
Frankenstein Victor Frankenstein was very interested in natural philosophy and chemistry and basically tried to play G-d by creating life. When he found the secret of activating dead flesh, he created a superhuman being composed of rotted corpses. What he did was considered unthinkable, and he was haunted by his own creation. When the monster escaped, Frankenstein knew that he had to deal with the consequences of what the monster might do. Frankenstein received a letter one day which informed h
Frankenstein Robert Walton the captain of a voyage to the North Pole Margaret Saville Walton\'s sister and confidante to whom he writes his letters Victor Frankenstein a student of Ingolstadt who becomes obsessed with his studies and creates the "monster" Alphonse Frankenstein Victor\'s father who dies of despair Caroline (Beaufort) Frankenstein Victor\'s kind-hearted mother who dies of scarlet fever when Victor is seventeen Ernest Frankenstein Victor\'s brother William Frankenstein Victor\'s y
Thomas Edison Thomas A. Edison earned his reputation as one of America\'s greatest inventors and heroes. Full of innovation, ingenuity, and enterprise, Edison "embodie[d] much of what Americans have felt was positive about the national experience. " Edison can put claim to 1093 US patents in addition to thousands more international patents. His works include such major contributions as advancements in telegraphy, the phonograph, a perfected nickel-iron-alkaline battery, and the first commercial
Time Machine By Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction\'s fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by
Antoine Lavoisier Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (lah vwah ZYAY) was one of the best-known French scientists and was an important government official. His theories of combustion, his development of a way to classify the elements and the first modern textbook of chemistry led to his being known as the father of modern chemistry. He contributed to much of the research in the field of chemistry. He is quoted for saying, "Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is t
Bromine Element The element Bromine, is a red liquid which is explosive at room temperature and has a red brown vapour. It has an atomic number of 35 and an atomic mass of 79.909. The melting point of Bromine is -7 deg.C and the boiling point is 58 degC with a relative density of 3.1. Bromine is a volatile dense mobile, that is a reddish brown liquid, which quickly gives a brown toxic valour with a disagreeable irritating odour. It combines directly with most elements although heat or a reactan
Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the first to speculate on the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named George Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on chemical reaction. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances during combustion. He explai
Chemicals Analysis Phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi) form a group of four elements in Group 5A of the periodic table. They exhibit increasing metallic properties going down the group. Nitrogen (N), which heads the group, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. Phosphorus is a highly reactive nonmetal, arsenic and antimony are poisonous metalloids, and bismuth is a true metal. Because of the arrangement of the outer electrons in their atoms, each of these element
Chemistry And Atom Throughout the discovery of the atom, many scientists worked to formulate how the atom works. Which began in the early 1800’s with John Dalton, to our current model of the electron cloud developed by Schrodinger. During this long process of the discovery the atom, took many models and scientists. The entire group of scientists who assisted in the discovery of the atom used each other’s model to improve each other’s theories. Firstly, John Dalton showed that, collectively, the
Coalition Chemistry Coalition Chemistry 1. a) Bulk movement is the overall movement of a fluid. The molecules all move in the same direction. Diffusion however is the random movement of molecules which usually results in a fairly even distribution. In other words the movement is not guaranteed to move in one direction but the probability that it will move in the lower gradient is greater. Osmosis is similar to diffusion but is differentiated by the membrane\'s behavior. The cell membrane does a
Dehydration Reaction Abstract: This study involved acid dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol. The results varied depending on the time elapsed after initial reaction. I attempted to prove the Evelyn Effect, which stated that over a period of time the products of the aforementioned reaction will beobserved to change volume so that those products formed by a cis isomer of 2-methylcyclohexanol will form first. However, once all molecules in the cis isomer undergo reaction the remaining trans config
Diamond The unique nature of diamond is heavily dependent upon its composition, crystal structure, and mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties.1 Of those dependencies, composition exacts the most influence over the characteristics. Crystal structure is the repeating pattern of diamond’s composition, and each of the properties are the result of molecular interaction which is determined by composition. Therefore, composition is paramount in the determination of the qualities of diamon
Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand in 1871 as one of 12 children. It was Rutherford who first "split" an atom and who discovered the atomic "nucleus", a name that he invented. For this he is regarded as the greatest experimental physicist of his time. Rutherford was one of the first and most important researchers in nuclear physics. Soon after the discovery of radioactivity in 1986 by the French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, Rutherford discovered the three differen
Ira Remsen Ira Remsen was born on February 10, 1846 in New York city. Even though he was born in the United States, he was educated in Germany. He received his M.D. at Columbia University in 1867 and he also earned a Ph.D. at the University of Munich and Göttingen in Germany. After receiving his degrees, Remsen began his investigation in pure chemistry at the University of Tübingen. It was in Germany and in Europe Remsen did most of his research. In 1876 he returned to the United States where h
Julius Robert Oppenheimer Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American physicist and government adviser, who directed the development of the first atomic bombs. To scientists, he was not only the builder of the atomic bomb and a pioneer in atomic energy, but a master of many languages, a good conversationalist and a brilliant mathematician. He was also a writer, and an expert in both the history of architecture and the religions of the world. Oppenheimer, who was born in New York City on April 22,
Louis Pasteur PASTEUR, Louis (1822-95). The French chemist Louis Pasteur devoted his life to solving practical problems of industry, agriculture, and medicine. His discoveries have saved countless lives and created new wealth for the world. Among his discoveries are the pasteurization process and ways of preventing silkworm diseases, anthrax, chicken cholera, and rabies. *BR* Pasteur sought no profits from his discoveries, and he supported his family on his professor\'s salary or on a modest go
Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polychlorinated biphenyls are a family of man-made chemicals that contain two hundred and nine individual compounds with varying toxicity. Many different combinations are possible. In chemical terminology, "phenyl" denotes a ring structure of six carbon atoms attached to something else; "biphenyl" results when two such rings are attached to each other. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is any molecule having multiple chlorine atoms attached to the carbon atoms of a biphen
Polyethene Polyethylene also known as polyethylene or polythene, was the first of the polymers to be discovered. Polyethene is a polymer produced by reacting oxygen and ethene, in this reaction the small ethene molecules attach together to form long chain polymer molecules. This process is known as addition polymerisation. Polyethene in our world today has many uses, some of these are: · mouldings-plastic bottles, lids and caps, different types of containers. · films-glad wrap and various plast
Sir Humphrey Davy In Chemistry there are many very important chemists. One is Sir Humphry Davy. Davy was born on December 17, 1778 in Penzance, Cornwall, England. He went to school in Penzance and in Truro. In 1794 his father died, to help his family financially he got a job as an apprentice to a surgeon. The surgeon\'s name was J. Binghan Borlarse. In 1797 Davy became interested in Chemistry. So in 1778 he became superintendent of the Medical Pneumatic Institution of Bristol. This organization
Soap History Most people washed themselves with only one essential thing at the time, water. This, of course, happened until the development of soap in 2800 B.C. The soap was found in clay cylinders during the excavation of ancient Babylon. There were inscriptions discovered on the cylinders, which showed us that fats were boiled with ashes, which was the method of making the soap at this time. Records have shown that Egyptians bathed regularly. There was a medical document found called "The Eb
One Flew Over The Cuckoo\'s Nest This movie demonstrates much of what I despise about my fellow feeble-minded Americans. In this movie, I saw stereotypes galore, and almost every cliche in the book. For example, one voluntary patient is seeking therapy for his marital problems. It seems that he and his wife were having "sexual" problems. This ultimately leads everyone, patients and viewers alike, to believe that this man must be gay. As if this weren\'t enough, we have to have the "blind-deaf-a
Price Discrimination Define, discuss, and account for the existence of price discrimination. Compare and exemplify the first, second, and third degrees of such discrimination. Overview Price discrimination is the practice of setting different pricing formulas in different virtual markets, while still maintaining the same product throughout. The prices are based upon the price elasticity of demand in each given market. In more practical terms, that means that during "Ladies Night" at M.P. O’Reil
Civil Engineering Why do I want to be a civil engineer? Until recently, I did not know the answer to this question myself. I was lost when choosing a career. Then, I read about civil engineering, an occupation involving the construction of buildings, roads, and bridges. As I looked farther into civil engineering, I liked many of the other aspects involved with the career. Although the education will be difficult, I have determined that civil engineering is the career that I want to pursue. What
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. He was educated at the University of New Zealand and the University of Cambridge. He was a professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec from 1989 to 1907. He was also professor at the University of Manchester in England. After 1919 he was professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Lab at the University of Cambridge moreover held a professorship, after 1920, at the Royal Instit
Alcoholism I am sitting at home playing Nintendo with my roommate, jake, when I hear a knock at the door. I wonder who in the world would be coming over this late at night, because it\'s after midnight. As I open the door, the tired, bloodshot eyes of my upstairs neighbor, Steve, stare at me. "Hi Sam," Steve says. As he attempts to enter my apartment, he stumbles on the slight rise where the weather strip runs under the door. As he trips, his forehead smashes onto the edge of the coffee table l
Frankenstein By Mary Shelley This is an English book report on "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley Frankenstein The story of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is about a man who created something that messes with nature, and nature came back to mess with him because nature is more powerful than man. Victor Frankenstein was very interested in natural philosophy and chemistry and basically tried to play G-d by creating life. When he found the secret of activating dead flesh, he created a superhuman being c
Frankenstein By Mary Shelley (Author\'s Note: This was a semi-creative project. We had to address the issues in a persuasive letter rather than a boring ol\' report, so please become unconfused as far as the format..) Cal Tech Curriculum Committee: Scientists are all too ready to lock themselves away with their research, unwilling - perhaps even incapable - of seeing the consequences of their actions. It is our duty as their educators to provide them with not only a means to gain knowledge but
Frankenstein By Mary Shelly In the story "Frankenstein," written by the author Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein decided that wanted to create a being out of people that were already dead. He believed that he could bring people back from the grave. Playing with nature in such a way would make him play the role of God. With Victor Frankenstein feeling that he had no true friends, the only relief he had of expressing his feeling was through letters to Elizabeth. Elizabeth was not Victors’ true si
Keeping Company Nora smiles at two men at the beginning of the story, and William is giving her the evil eye. Does he really not trust her that much? · When Nora goes to walk on the beach, it reminds me of when we go to Corpus Christi. I love to go and walk on the beach. · Nora talks about the child as if she is already born. I think that is wonderful. · "Don’t bother with them, Nora. They’re not our kind" When William says this, it reminds me of my best friend, and her boyfriend. · Nora seems
Sun Also Rises Appreciation I cannot express to you how glad I am that I am taking this class. I am thoroughly enjoying Hemingway. The Sun Also Rises is one of the best books I\'ve read in quite a long time. For a while there, I was, for God knows what reason, taking Physics and Chemistry and Biology. It is really an adventure to be back with books and words and reading. I am also amazed that I never could read more of Him when it wasn\'t an assignment. And how is it that when I am told to write
Voyager Out By Katherine Frank Katherine Frank’s novel A Voyager Out tells the life story of Mary Kingsley. She talks of her childhood, her young adult life, and her traveling life. She wanted to tell the world what this woman explorer did for Africa. Mary Kingsley had a famous family, many of whom were writers. Mary herself wrote two books. In her books however, she leaves out a lot about her life. A lot of what Katherine Frank had discovered came from Mary’s letters to friends while traveling.
Acid Rain Pollution comes in various forms. Whether it’s toxic waste, CFC’s, or sewage, they are all hazardous, to the earth. These can deplete the earth and it’s inhabitants of resources, causing a harmful change. A product of pollution is acid rain. We shall see that acidification is harmful to all forms of life. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is polluted by sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, fog, or