Environment

Alcoholism Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by continuous or periodic: impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial (NCADD)." It\'s effects on an individual are an indescribable, harsh, reality of what one d
Smoking Danger Every year thousands of people die because of lung cancer or other tobacco related illnesses. Everyone in the world comes in contact with smoke from a cigarette at least once in their lifetime, whether it is at a restaurant or at work. Millions of people are addicted to smoking, and thousands more become addicted every year. Cigarettes and other tobacco products are everywhere. Most of the addicted smokers started when they were young (Roberts 18). The reason why people get addic
Tobacco Smoke Did you know that most people are at the risk of dying from just breathing the air around them? Every day at least ninety-five percent of American people suffer from (E.T.S.) Environmental Tobacco Smoke, or more commonly known as second hand smoke. For those that are not familiar with what second hand smoke is let me explain it to you. Second hand smoke is a mixture of the smoke exhaled by smokers and the smoke that comes from the burning ends of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Thi
Tobacco Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. The tobacco plant is believed to have originated in the Western Hemisphere. The cultivated species most often grown for North American and European tobacco products is Nicotine Tabacum. The leaves of the plant are prepared for smoking, chewing, or sniffing. In addition nicotine tobacco contains over 45 ca
Seventies How the 1970’s Shaped American History The Nineteen Seventies was a pop culture decade. From Hippies to Disco and Saturday Night Fever to The Brady Bunch, the Seventies were full of cultural changes that shaped society for years to come. Although pop culture was important, many political outcomes also occurred. The Watergate scandal, the official end of the Vietnam conflict, and the United States Bicentennial all happened during this decade. Oil and nuclear problems arose, and Abortio
Anthropology Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are human paleontology, the study of our fossil records, and human genetics, which examines the ways in which human beings differ from each other. Also adopted are aspects of human ecology, ethnology, demography, nutrition, and environmental physiology. From the physical anthropolog
Dam Building Many people have already dammed a small stream using sticks and mud by the time they become adults. Humans have used dams since early civilization, because four-thousand years ago they became aware that floods and droughts affected their well-being and so they began to build dams to protect themselves from these effects.1 The basic principles of dams still apply today as they did before; a dam must prevent water from being passed. Since then, people have been continuing to build an
Skyscrapers The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. Benny Louie Humanity 450 Dr. Maureen Schmid 17 May 1999 The architectural design of the 20th century skyscrapers has been redefined due to the advancement of our modern technology. In our modern society, the architectural design of skyscrapers is changing the downtown landscape of metropolitan areas. Due to the change of technologies, it has changed the archit
Women In Architecture Of what historic and contemporary concern is it that the architecture profession has been, and continues to be, strongly male dominated in Australia (currently 90% of registered architects in NSW are men). Ideally, what proportion of the profession should women occupy and why? From the start of human history, we always experience certain level of inequality between sexes. It can be seen everywhere around the world and is a concern to everyone, both men and women. This ineq
International Space Station The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. A plan like this, arranged to benefit the whole world economy, should sound like a good idea to every person, but some believe that the ISS is too risky, too ineffective, or too costly to create. Whether or not the space station is worth the money, time,
Lamont Doherty Observatory Every year the Lamont – Doherty Earth Observatory holds an open house in which scientists share their studies and really let the public see what and how they do what they do. Scientists at this research center are working together studying different fields of the Geologic sciences ranging from Oceanography, Geochemistry, Seismology, and even Marine Biology share their findings with the public. This year like every other year, they set up deferent exhibits and share th
Moon Flight On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy delivered one of the most memorable State of the Union addresses in the history of the United States. "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the earth" (http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary, President John F. Kennedy\'s Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs). With those words, Kennedy launched a new era of space explorat
Oceanography From Space At first thought, studying the oceans from space seems to be a bizarre idea. Space observation helps oceanographers do research with manned and unmanned space systems. The space systems can be satellites and/or space shuttles that observe various features of the ocean such as sea-surface winds, sea-surface temperatures, waves, ocean currents, frontal regions, and sea color. Technological advances have greatly improved the ability of oceanographers to gather and use infor
Ozone Layer Some scientists have proclaimed that the human race is slowly depleting the layer of ozone which protects us from ultra violet light. In reality, humans have very little control of the world in which we live. Scientific evidence has shown that there is very little depletion in the ozone layer and the contributions the human race makes towards this depletion is and always will be insignificant compared to nature. The theories of the depletion and what it would cause are flawed and co
Space Exploration On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy delivered one of the most memorable State of the Union addresses in the history of the United States. "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the earth" (http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary, President John F. Kennedy\'s Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs). With those words, Kennedy launched a new era of space ex
Airport Privatization For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fortu
Margaret Atwood "There is so much silence between the words..." SOCI 4019 September 29, 1999. An Overview of Works, Styles, and Themes Margaret Atwood has written a great number of novels and other forms of literature. The major press editions are as follows: WORKS Poetry ¨ 1964, The Cirle Game ¨ 1968, The Animals in That Country ¨ 1970, The Journals of Susanna Moodie ¨ 1970, Procedures for Underground ¨ 1971, Power Politics ¨ 1974, You are Happy ¨ 1978, Selected Poems ¨ 1978, Two-Headed Poems
Mohandas Gandhi Mohandas Gandhi was born in Porbandar (In the state of Gujarat) on the 2nd of October, 1869. He was educated at university College, London. After this, he went back to India to begin his Law profession but had no luck and moved to South Africa. Gandhi found that in South Africa he was considered as a second class citizen even though he was a well educated Lawyer. This started his first\'mission\'. To get India\'s residing in South Africa equal rights. In this action he discovere
Aquaculture Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms in fresh, or salt water. A wide variety of aquatic organisms are produced through aquaculture, including fish, crustaceans, mollusks, algae, and aquatic plants. Unlike capture fisheries, aquaculture requires deliberate human intervention in the organisms\' productivity and results in yields that exceed those from the natural environment alone. Stocking water with (juvenile organisms), fertilizing the water, feeding the organisms, and m
Biological Species Concept Over the last few decades the Biological Species Concept (BSC) has become predominately the dominant species definition used. This concept defines a species as a reproductive community. This though has had much refinement through the years. The earliest precursor to the concept is in Du Rietz (1930), then later Dobzhansky added to this definition in 1937.But even after this the definition was highly restrictive. The definition of a species that is accepted as the Biol
Black Footed Ferret In the past three decades very few endangered species have been restored to viable populations. The black footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) was believed to be the most endangered mammal in the united states. It is a small mink sized carnivore of the Great plains and intermountain basins The ferrets appear to be obligatory predators on the prairie dogs and once occupied a range essentially identical to that of the prairie dogs. They prey on them and also use their burrows for
Cell Membrane To study the effect of environmental changes in the permeability of living beet root cells. Procedure A: The effect of pH on the cell membrane Materials & Method 1. Cut a beet root into slices approximately 2mm thick. Use a cork bore to cut out thirty-five (35) slices. 2. Place the discs in a 250 mL beaker and rinse thoroughly in cool running tap water. The red pigment collected comes from the damaged cells and can be used to analyze the chemical nature of the pigment. 3. The pigm
Coliform Bacteria Coliform bacteria are good indicator organisms for the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to their realtionship with these pathogenic bacteria, their relative ease of determination by simple methods, and by their occurrence in large quantities in human feces. The MPN method used in this experiment is one of the prescribed techniques for the determination of these coliform bacteria from the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater as prescribed by the EPA.
Crab Study Since its itroduction to the New Jersey shore in 1988, the western Pacific shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus has spread to inhabit rocky intertidal locations along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to North Carolina (McDermott 1998). Many reasons have been proposed to explain the rapid spread of this non-indiginous species. For example, it has been shown that H. sanguineus has longer spawning periods along the mid-Atlantic coast than it does in its natural habitat in the western
Evolution Of Humans Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of humans. A human is any member of the species Homo sapiens, meaning "wise man." Since at least the Upper Paleolithic era, some 40,000 years ago, every human society has devised a creation myth to explain how humans came to be. Creation myths are based on cultural beliefs that have been adopted as a legitimate explanation by a society as to where we came from. The science of paleoanthropology, which also tries to cr
Marine Biology A major source of coastal pollutants, human sewage fouls bays and beaches with both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. Although billions of dollars have been invested in sewage treatment plants to treat wastewater, new and growing coastal communities have increased the amount of discharge into oceans and estuaries. The United States Office of Technology Assessment has identified thirteen hundred major industries and six hundred municipal wastewater treatment plants that discharge int
Origin Of Species Considered one of the most significant, influential, and controversial publications in history, this book, I felt would be interesting to read and learn from. Although his content in this particular book is the subject of much controversy, Darwin\'s proffesional contributions and accomplishments will remain well known and respected. Therefore, I selected The Origin of Species believing that it would prove to be a stimulating and challenging reading experience. This famous book
Sociobiology In the middle of this century, bot biological and cultural anthropology experiences a major change in theory. In biological anthropology, biological anthropologists adopted an approach which focused on the gene. They saw the human evolution as the process of genetic adaptation to the environment. In the mean time, there were also cultural analogies to evolution. Cultural evolution also followed a process of adaptation. In the field of anthropology, a very important theory is that o
Spatial Data Acquisition Spatial data acquisition and system modeling: notes from the field and the lab. Name of Lecturer: Philip Graniero Department of Lecture: Earth Sciences Date and Time of Lecture: January 13th, 2000 at 4:30pm Purpose of Research Project: The primary purpose of the project is to use model simulations to forecast spatial patterns among various species in the environment. By comparing current situations with test results, Graniero hopes to have the ability to predict spatial
Transpiration Lab Water is essential to plants in many ways. It first provides the major substance for living, to keep cells from shriveling up and dying. The second major function is to keep the plants rigidity. As plant cells become turgid, full of water, the cells expand, filling the extent of their cell walls, which are kept taught with turgor pressure. If the cells lose water, two problems occur. First, the cells dehydrate, causing the organism to die. Second, turgor pressure is lost as ce
Guns Germs And Steel Why is it that Europeans ended up conquering so much of the world? Or as Yali puts it in the far beginning of the book, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own"? Despite all the contrary evidence from anthropology and human biology, many persist in attributing the differing political and economic successes of the world’s peoples to historical contingency. On the other hand though,
Living With China This is a book Summary I did for an International Polictics Course. I do not wish to have my name published, because if the teacher found out I submitted it I would be expelled. I attend SUNY in NY, USA. I recieved an A on this paper. The only comments she made was that I needed to replace the Whichs with thats & I needed to have a page for siting. Book Summary : Living With China Living With China: U.S. -China Relations in the Twenty-First Century is a book edited by Ezra F.
Psychology Of The Internet Summary of the Book Today, the internet is a growing community. Millions of people from all over the world go "online" everyday to check email, research, shop, or even just interact with someone halfway around the world. As this community grows, so does the number of interactions between people. The Psychology of the Internet examines the psychology of new behavior produced by this novel method of human communication. It also delves into the business sector of the int
Pulling The Plug On Mother Earth Whether it be through intensified media attention, or due to the efforts of prominent scientists and other members of society, we have become increasingly aware of the detrimental effects that technological advances in industry and agriculture have on the global environment. However, as Carl Sagan points out in "Pulling the Plug on Mother Earth" awareness is not enough, nor is society’s response to the catastrophic implications of environmental pollution rapid en
Ben And Jerry Ben & Jerry’s first started in 1978 on the corner of St.Paul and College streets in Burlington, Vermont. Ben and Jerry met in 1963 while in 7th grade gym class. That was the start of their lifelong friendship and partnership in business. Their first ice cream stand was an old renovated gas station in downtown Burlington. Ben and Jerry started their corporation with a $12,000 investment. The outstanding taste of their ice cream, which comes from the fresh Vermont milk and cream, wo
Leadership Theory According to Nathan F. Iannone, leadership can be defined as the art of influencing, directing, guiding, and controlling others in such a way as to obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in accomplishment of an objective. Leaders are not born...sure there are some gifts-traits-attributes, natural endowments that affect relative abilities...but they are not born, they are made. Any reasonably intelligent person with enough forcefulness to devel
NAFTA The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which built on the 1989 U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA), is the most comprehensive regional free trade agreement ever negotiated. It created the world\'s largest free trade area: 380 million people producing nearly $8 trillion dollars worth of goods and services. On January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement entered into force. One of the main objectives of the Agreement is the elimination of tariffs between Canada, Mex
Organizational Environment Uncertainty Acme is made up of five key departments, they include: purchasing, drafting, productions, industrial engineering and mechanical engineering. Omega, on the other hand, is made up of four key departments: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and drafting. Both are similar. These departments play an instrumental role in the success of both companies. It is evident that Acme operates under a mechanistic structure whereas Omega
Chemicals Analysis Phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi) form a group of four elements in Group 5A of the periodic table. They exhibit increasing metallic properties going down the group. Nitrogen (N), which heads the group, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. Phosphorus is a highly reactive nonmetal, arsenic and antimony are poisonous metalloids, and bismuth is a true metal. Because of the arrangement of the outer electrons in their atoms, each of these element
Enzymes An enzyme is a catalyst, which is a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called its substrate. While the enzyme is bound to the substrate, the catalytic action converts the substrate to the product. Because of its shape, each enzyme catalyzes a specific reaction (molecular recognition). Only a certain region of the enzyme molecule actually binds to the substrate. This area is called the active s
Mercury What Is Mercury? As anyone who\'s ever broken a thermometer can attest, mercury is a fascinating substance. It also has an interesting history. Named after the fleet-footed Roman messenger of the gods, mercury has been used for more than 2,000 years. Mercury ore cinnabar has even been found smeared on Neolithic skulls. Its first recorded mention is a reference by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., a time when the silvery-white, heavy metal was used in religious ceremonies. Spanish mi
Methanol As Fuel This section is about methanol fuel cells for our future. Since I have done this research I have never realized how important future fuels are. Methanol is a liquid fuel made form natural gas or renewable biomass resources. Methanol is the leading candidate to provide the hydrogen necessary to power fuel cell vehicles. The commercialization of methanol-powered fuel cells will offer practical, affordable, long-range electric vehicles with zero or near zero emissions while retain
Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polychlorinated biphenyls are a family of man-made chemicals that contain two hundred and nine individual compounds with varying toxicity. Many different combinations are possible. In chemical terminology, "phenyl" denotes a ring structure of six carbon atoms attached to something else; "biphenyl" results when two such rings are attached to each other. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is any molecule having multiple chlorine atoms attached to the carbon atoms of a biphen
Sulfuric Acid Among the many plants in Ontario where sulfuric acid is produced, there are three major plant locations that should be noted on account of their greater size. These are: (1) Inco. - Sudbury, (2) Noranda Mines Ltd. - Welland, and (3) Sulfide - Ontario There are a number of factors which govern the location of each manufacturing plant. Some of these factors that have to be considered when deciding the location of a Sulfuric Acid plant are: a. Whether there is ready access to raw mat
Antidumping While antidumping doesn\'t get a lot of press, it is certainly one of the biggest issues that the WTO is dealing with today. During the recent WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle, much was mage about protesters who were demanding higher environmental standards or international labor standards. Little was mentioned about antidumping. However, In the midst of the many demonstrators there were steel workers and members of other union organizations like the AFL-CIO who were there to d
Automobile Industry There is no industry more present in the world-wide community than the automobile industry. The automobile has changed the lives, culture, and economy of the people and nations that manufacture and demand them. Ever since the late 1800s when the first "modern" car was invented by Benz and Daimler in Germany, the industry has grown into a billion dollar industry affecting so many aspects of our lives. There are more than 400 million passenger cars alone on the roads today. Du
Bagby Copy Company Discuss the tradeoffs that Bagby faces in choosing between specialized and broad task assignment. Bagby Copy Company manufactures 10 different copiers. The main part of these copiers is a wiring bundle. This device is plugged into various components during the assembly process. · They can assign each major task in this process to different employees using a broad task assignment or one individual can be assigned the task of producing the completed bundle using a specialized t
Chinas Growing Economy After North America, Europe, and Japan, the area of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong "is a fourth growth pole in the world economy" (Jue 108) which in 1994 was expected to double in size by 2002. Today, the growth rate is still on track to fulfill that prediction. Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, China’s gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over
Economic Regulation The U.S and the world economy like everything else have its ups and downs. The government plays a crucial role in deciding how the economy will set over time. An Economist by the name of John Maynard Keynes felt that if either inflation or unemployment got out of hand, the government could adjust the business cycle to balance the economy. Keynes was more geared toward the bigger picture and focused on macroeconomics. His work led to the government and many economists believi
Economy And Environment Whether it be through intensified media attention, or due to the efforts of prominent scientists and other members of society, we have become increasingly aware of the detrimental effects that technological advances in industry and agriculture have on the global environment. However, as Carl Sagan points out in "Pulling the Plug on Mother Earth" awareness is not enough, nor is society’s response to the catastrophic implications of environmental pollution rapid enough. Sl