General History Page 8

Punk Era
Punk Era
Punk Era Sex, drugs, and rock and roll was the rallying cry for a movement that changed American culture forever. Rock and roll first startled the American scene in the mid-1950’s, but no one then could have predicted the remarkable vitality and staying power of this new music. The early tradition of rock has gone through many transitions. Provocative and outlandish stage attire and behavior have been an important resource since the birth of rock and roll. Decades following the birth of rock
Buddhist Cosmology
Buddhist Cosmology
Buddhist Cosmology Throughout history there have been many attempts to explain the origin and workings of our universe. Most every culture has their own cosmogony. Nearly every individual has his or her own idea of what our universe is. During our modern era of advanced scientific knowledge, we feel that we have a good grasp on how the universe works. We have our Chemistry and Physics, along with Mathematics, to examine the universe with. Any person educated in these fields will tell you that t
Greek Mythology
Greek Mythology
Greek Mythology Greek Mythology, beliefs and ritual observances of the ancient Greeks, who became the first Western civilization about 2000 BC. It consists mainly of a body of diverse stories and legends about a variety of gods. Greek mythology had become fully developed by about the 700s BC. Three classic collections of myths-Theogony by the poet Hesiod and the Iliad and the Odyssey by the poet Homer-appeared at about that time. Greek mythology has several distinguishing characteristics. The G
Iliad Of Homer
Iliad Of Homer
Iliad Of Homer In the Iliad, Homer finds a great tool in the simile. Just by opening the book in a random place the reader is undoubtedly faced with one, or within a few pages. Homer seems to use everyday activities, at least for the audience, his fellow Greeks, in these similes nearly exclusively. When one is confronted with a situation that is familiar, one is more likely to put aside contemplating the topic and simply inject those known feelings. This would definitely be an effective tactic
Mysticism
Mysticism
Mysticism In this article I would like to bring the findings of my somewhat unusual but increasingly accepted field — mysticism— to the discussion, for I think they may offer some helpful insights about consciousness. Why? When a biologist seeks to understand a complex phenomenon, one key strategy is to look to at it in its simplest form. Probably the most famous is the humble bacterium E. coli. Its simple gene structure has allowed us to understand much of the gene functioning of complex specie
Myth Origins
Myth Origins
Myth Origins The origin of the word myth seems to be a myth in itself. Myths have generally originated from a Greek history that used an oral tradition to explain events that occurred before the written word. Often supernatural beings or fictitious characters were used to explain popular ideas concerning phenomena\'s of nature or the history of people. The myths that were carried on from generation to generation were often very imaginative in an attempt to spark the interest of young listeners.
Sumerian And Egyptian Deities
Sumerian And Egyptian Deities
Sumerian And Egyptian Deities The Sumerian and Egyptian cultures developed a rich and detailed mythology over the thousands of years of their existence. Each culture developed its own complex, polytheistic system of deities and worship. There are many aspects of both of these two culture\'s gods that are similar, but for one to truly understand the relationship between these two cultures one must delve deeper and look at the differences. The Sumerians had four leading deities known as creating
Superstitions
Superstitions
Superstitions The technology which surrounds almost everyone in the modern society, affects both work and leisure activities. Technology contains information that many would rather it did not have. It influences minds in good and bad ways, and it allows people to share information which they would otherwise not be able to attain. Even if a person does not own a computer or have credit cards, there is information on a computer somewhere about everyone. The technology which is just now beginning
Taoism
Taoism
Taoism Classical Chinese theory of mind is similar to Western folk psychology in that both mirror their respective background view of language. They differ in ways that fit those folk theories of language. The core Chinese concept is xin (the heart-mind). As the translation suggests, Chinese folk psychology lacked a contrast between cognitive and affective states ([representative ideas, cognition, reason, beliefs] versus [desires, motives, emotions, feelings]). The xin guides action, but not
Animal Testing
Animal Testing
Animal Testing Medicines, household products, food, and basically everything involved in the life of an average person has to under go a form of testing before it is legal to be placed on a shelf and if available to the public. The same tests are performed on every medical procedure that is introduced to surgeons. Since the only way to directly mimic the human body is to use it itself, scientists were forced to find the closest and best alternative. That is where animals were introduced to the
Aristotle's Tragedy
Aristotle's Tragedy
Aristotle\'s Tragedy Defining a Tragedy Greek philosopher Aristotle proposes components of an ideal tragedy in his work, Tragedy and the Emotions of Pity and Fear. According to Aristotle, there are six components of a great tragedy: plot, character, thought, verbal expression, song, and visual adornment. He dissects these components in great detail and provides standards for all of them. In his play Bacchae, Euripides resembles much of Aristotle’s components of an ideal tragedy. Euripides has o
Capital Punishment And Minors
Capital Punishment And Minors
Capital Punishment And Minors The death penalty is utilized as an optimistic view to alleviate much of what is morally, and criminally wrong with our society. Yet in reality, capital punishment does nothing to improve America’s justice system by allegedly acting as a deterrent to the criminals. Nevertheless, Americans continue to execute adults and children on dubious principles. The execution of children is particularly outrageous. International and Federal standards sanction that children are
Creationism
Creationism
Creationism Creationism is a religious metaphysical theory about the origin of the universe. It is not a scientific theory. Technically, creationism is not necessarily connected to any particular religion. It simply requires a belief in a Creator. Millions of Christians and non-Christians believe there is a Creator of the universe and that scientific theories such as the the theory of evolution do not conflict with belief in a Creator. However, fundamentalist Christians such as Ronald Reagan an
Descartes On Metaphysics
Descartes On Metaphysics
Descartes On Metaphysics Descartes’ Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is really real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowle
Development Of Man
Development Of Man
Development Of Man In the dictionary a human being is defined as a person showing qualities of people. But what exactly is a person or people? Do dictionaries go into detail about that? Where do we come from or why do we have ears? Scientists have been trying to answer questions like these for years, but everyone has a different opinion. Some say people originated from the very human like animal known as the Gorilla, others say we all came from an African American woman. But does anybody know f
Education Ability Discrimination
Education Ability Discrimination
Education Ability Discrimination I have spent sixteen out of my twenty years on this planet, in school. At age four I entered preschool and now at age twenty, as I embark upon my third year in college, school has become second nature to me. Besides my family and friends, school has been the one aspect of my life that has remained constant. In a general sense I hardly ever give it a second thought. Yet on a more specific level, I am constantly buried under an exam for one class, or a difficult l
Environmental Philosophy
Environmental Philosophy
Environmental Philosophy Many authors throughout history have expressed their, or society’s, yearning towards a simpler life: a life without responsibilities or obligations, a life without worry or regret. Sigurd Olson expresses such a yearning in his essay Contemplation, where through reading Lao Tzu, he had discovered that in order to understand and relate to wilderness, we only need a contemplative mind, which is simple and easy. He suggested that life in wilderness is a continual contempla
Feminism
Feminism
Feminism What is feminism? By general definition, feminism is a philosophy in which women and their contributions are valued. It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. Feminists can be anyone in the population, men, women, girl or boys. Feminism can also be described as a movement. A revolution that includes women and men who wish the world to be equal without boundaries. These boundaries or blockades are better known as discrimination and biases against gender, sexual
God Existence
God Existence
God Existence ...god is dead and no one cares drowning in his own hypocrisy and if there is a hell I will see you there burning with your god in humility... —Trent Reznor, from Heresy Does God exist? As you can see above, even the most vile human beings acknowledge him. But trying to argue for or against the idea that God exists is much more difficult than believing that he exists or even acknowledging that there is a higher power. Even Charles Darwin—the British naturalist who developed th
John Milton's Paradise Lost
John Milton's Paradise Lost
John Milton\'s Paradise Lost Paradise Lost is an epic - poem based on the Biblical story of Adam end Eve. It attempts to justify and explain how we came to be what we are today. The central question to Paradise Lost is where does evil comes from? Throughout the poem we receive information about the origin of evil. At the beginning of John Milton\'s work we are given the Biblical explanation, of Adam and Eve eating from the tree of knowledge and being expelled from the Garden of Eden. This wa
Knowledge Limits
Knowledge Limits
Knowledge Limits Over history, the human race has striven for truth and understanding logic. When trying to understand this, a person approaches the philosophical question, What can I know? With this philosophical question comes the epic battle between whether or not a person should base an opinion on empicism or rationalism. I believe that I need to be shown facts and logic to understand something, however I also rely on my senses to strengthen my self. First of all empicism is when a person
Machiavelli
Machiavelli
Machiavelli Machiavelli and the President Lately, the president of the United States Bill Clinton, has pursued some policies that have been very unpopular not only with the general public but the electorate as well. Besides the whole Monica ordeal he feels that these unpopular policies will effect the results of the next election. The presidential advisors have formulated countless plans but no plan has seemed to work. One idea would be to leave the unpopular policies as they are because of the
Machiavelli
Machiavelli
Machiavelli When you speak of Fidel Castro, what do you speak of? The Cuban Leader is not your everyday leader. To fully understand Fidel Castro you must have a firm foundation with which to work from. I will explore the political ideology of Fidel Castro by explaining what is in an ideology, Fidel Castro’s background, and his political position both before the Cuban revolution and presently. An ideology is a number of action-oriented, materialistic, popular, and simplistic political theories t
Marxism And Economics
Marxism And Economics
Marxism And Economics Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resources of this society. The systems are referred to as governments and the resources as the populace or inhabitants and forces of production. A government must be dynamic in its nature reflecting the change in society. At times these systems have resisted the necessity to
Montesquieu's Definition Of Law
Montesquieu's Definition Of Law
Montesquieu\'s Definition Of Law The following was completed for a Political Thought and Theory Class in my Senior Year of Highschool..my grade was an 85 Montesquieu: Definition of Law Into the first three chapters of Book 1, The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu condensed a lifetime of thinking, not so much on law as what law is, (after all, the work by Montesquieu is entitled The Spirit of Laws, not The Laws of the Spirit). The definition of law provided to us by Montesquieu can be most clearly ide
Morality - Empirical Approach
Morality - Empirical Approach
Morality - Empirical Approach 1. Introduction In this paper I wish to consider the following related questions: (i) Can a system of morality be justified?; (ii) Why should one act morally?; (iii) How can others be persuaded to act morally? Clearly none of these questions is new, and moral philosophers have proposed a variety of responses to them over the centuries without reaching any general agreement. Nevertheless, because these questions are fundamental to any practical application of moral
Morality Legislation
Morality Legislation
Morality Legislation Can we, do we, and should we legislate morality is a question that rings in the ears of many Americans. It seems that there are more factors, conditions and answers to this frequently asked question than the common person is willing to consider. Let’s attempt to take the best ideas from the top scholars on the issue. In order to answer the questions presented, one must fully understand the idea of morality and what it means to legislate it. What is morality? According to We
Nozick's Enlightenment
Nozick's Enlightenment
Nozick\'s Enlightenment According to Nozick there are three sets of rules of justice, defining: 1. how things not previously possessed by anyone may be acquired; 2. how possession may be transferred from one person to another; and 3. what must be done to rectify injustices arising from violations of (1) and (2). A distribution is just if it has arisen in accordance with these three sets of rules. See pp. 151-2. Nozick does not try to specify in detail the rules under the above three headings (\
Oedipus And Socrates
Oedipus And Socrates
Oedipus And Socrates In Plato’s Five Dialogues and Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, man’s actions for the greater good of the city-state can lead to horrible consequences for the individual. Both Socrates and Oedipus carry out what they believe to be their duty for their city. Socrates believes that his actions are just and proper, but when viewed by the city-state as a whole his actions are looked at as counter-productive and ill advised to the youth of the society. Oedipus on the other hand hasn’t don
Philosophy Of Medicine
Philosophy Of Medicine
Philosophy Of Medicine The book, the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is an objective look into the world of two different cultures and their belief systems. The viewpoints of the Hmong and of the American doctors represent Hmong culture and the root of Western medicine. The book takes into account how two cultures, rather, two completely opposite worlds are collided and their impact on each other (Fadiman 1997). The book uncovers the underlying meaning of how different We
Plato's Meno
Plato's Meno
Plato\'s Meno Throughout history, philosophers have sought to understand the nature of true knowledge and how to achieve it. Most believe that true knowledge is acquired empirically, and not latent in our minds from birth. In Plato’s Meno, Socrates argues in favour of the pre-natal existence of knowledge, the opposite of this proposal: that knowledge is essentially latent, and is brought to light through questioning. The erisitic paradox, which stems from this view of knowledge, states that if
Prince And Discourses
Prince And Discourses
Prince And Discourses Although many of the same ideas are contained in both The Prince and the Discourses, these two works differ significantly in emphasis because they discuss two different types of political systems. The Prince, is one of the first examinations of politics and science from a purely scientific and rational perspective. In The Prince, Machiavelli was concerned with a principality, a state in which one ruler or a small elite governs a mass of subjects who have no active politica
Progressive Historians
Progressive Historians
Progressive Historians One must decide the meaning of progressive historiography. It can mean either the history written by progressive historians, or it can mean history written by historians of the Progressive era of American history and shortly after. The focus that was chosen for this paper is more in keeping with the latter interpretation, if for no other reason than it provides a useful compare-and-contrast control literature. The caveat is this: the focus of this report is on the pr
Prostitution
Prostitution
Prostitution I. Introduction Prostitution, performance of sexual acts solely for the purpose of material gain. Persons prostitute themselves when they grant sexual favors to others in exchange for money, gifts, or other payment and in so doing use their bodies as commodities. In legal terms, the word prostitute refers only to those who engage overtly in such sexual-economic transactions, usually for a specified sum of money. Prostitutes may be of either sex, but throughout history the majority
Racial Equality In America
Racial Equality In America
Racial Equality In America Throughout the history of the country, America has been considered a fairly racist union. Undoubtedly the greatest injustice in the United States to this day is the white’s treatment of African-Americans, specifically slavery. The vast majority of non-black people of that time believed that blacks were not equal to other races. White Americans of the slavery period specifically held this view. It was nearly impossible for a black to live free in America, and it was ev
Racialism
Racialism
Racialism Appiah addresses the issues of racialism, intrinsic racism, and extrensic racism in his article entitled RACISMS. However, after analyzing Appiah’s views on racism and its different forms, his views on the theoretical validity of racialism and extrinsic racism are seriously doubted. Appiah defines racialism as the view that there are essentail characteristics that allow us to classify people into distinct races, each of which shares certain traits and tendencies. On this topic, Appi
Red Cocoon
Red Cocoon
Red Cocoon Generally speaking, the purpose of most forms of artistic expression such as literary art, music, or art itself is a mode by which the author can express him/herself with. They use their respective skills and/or interests to convey feelings or thoughts on any given topic. Short fiction is by no means exempt from this. Many writers use their literary skills to express dreams, aspirations, opinions, or even political viewpoints. In order to make a dertermination of a probable origin fo
Socrates And Crito
Socrates And Crito
Socrates And Crito The dialogue Crito, by Plato, recounts the last days of Socrates, immediately before his execution was going to take place in Athens. In the dialogue, Socrates’ friend, Crito, proposes that Socrates escape from prison. Socrates considers this proposal, trying to decide if escaping would be just andmorally justified. Eventually, Socrates concludes that the act is considered unjust and morally unjustified. Socrates decides to accept his death penalty and execution. Socr
Utopian Society
Utopian Society
Utopian Society According to the curriculum of our Athens to New York course, we are supposed to study certain themes that are carried through history and literary works of various eras. In addition, there are some recurring themes that also become evident, especially in some of the more recent works that we have studied. Works like Cornel West\'s Race Matters, Elie Wiesel\'s Night, and Franz Kafka\'s The Trial, carry many similar themes, and teach us readers some important lessons about oursel
History Of Physics
History Of Physics
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and
Superfluids
Superfluids
Superfluids As we shall see, it is generally believed that the phenomenon of superfluidity is directly connected with the fact that the atoms of helium-4 obey Bose statistics, and that the lambda-transition is due to the onset of the peculiar phenomenon called Bose condensation. (Leggett, 1989) BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION This is the phenomenon wherein the bosons (a type of particle) making up a substance merge into the lowest energy level, into a shared quantum state. In general, it refers to
Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg Carl Sandburg was unique compare to many other poets. All of the poems that he wrote were short and straight to the point. You would not find any poems that he had written that are over a page, yet still; his poems are very easy to understand. Sandburg lived through a lot of historic events, so all of his poems were about those historic events. As you know, history isn’t always exciting or easy to learn. Yet, Sandburg was able to write about those times in a way that an average hi
Philip Levine
Philip Levine
Philip Levine White never thought she would be a famous photographer. In 1921, when Margaret was 17, she went to college to study herpetology, or the study of snakes and reptiles. That same year her father died leaving her family with little money. To stay in college Margaret got a job taking and selling pictures of the college campus using her father’s broken camera. That summer she got a job as the photographer and counselor at a summer camp. Even though she liked taking pictures, for Margare
Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman In parting with traditional poetic formalities, Walt Whitman alleviated a burden that impeded his ability to achieve full poetic expression. To Whitman, the strict boundaries that formal meter, structure, and rhyme imposed set limits on his stylistic freedom. This is not to say that these limits prevented Whitman from conveying his themes. Rather, they presented a contradiction to which Whitman refused to conform. In Whitman’s eyes, to meet these formal guidelines one would also ha
America In Transition
America In Transition
America In Transition For the United States, as for most states in the world, the 1980’s and 1990’s were a time of change and challenge. During this period the effects of change both within the US and internationally acted as push factors in many areas of life, including economics and politics. This sudden change was primarily due to global shocks and recessions, increased foreign economic competition, the end of the Cold War and the demise of the Soviet Union, the development of revolutionary
American Revolution
American Revolution
American Revolution What are the decisive events and arguments that produced the American Revolution? It was the best of times, it was the worst of times (Charles Dickens). This best describes the Americas in the 1700’s. The settler’s went through the best of times from obtaining religious freedom, to becoming prosperous merchants, and finally to establishing a more democratic government. However, it was the worst of times in the sense that the settlers in the America’s were taken advantage o
Antiwar Movement In US
Antiwar Movement In US
Antiwar Movement In US The antiwar movement against Vietnam in the US from 1965-1971 was the most significant movement of its kind in the nation\'s history. The United States first became directly involved in Vietnam in 1950 when President Harry Truman started to underwrite the costs of France\'s war against the Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased the US\'s political, economic, and military commitments steadily throughout the fifties and early s
China US Relations
China US Relations
China US Relations China, for most of its 3500 years of history, China led the world in agriculture, crafts, and science. It fell behind in the 19th century when the Industrial Revolution gave the West clear superiority in military and economic affairs. In the first half of the 20th century, China continued to suffer from major famines, civil unrest, military defeat, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under Mao Tse Tung established a dictatorship that, while ensuring aut
Chinese Democracy Movements
Chinese Democracy Movements
Chinese Democracy Movements In 1978, stimulated by the opening of China to the West and also by the reversal of verdicts against the 1976 Tiananmen protesters (These demonstrations against the gang of four had been condemned as counter-revolutionary at the time but were now declared a revolutionary act), thousands of Chinese began to put their thoughts into words, their words onto paper and their paper onto walls to be read by passers by. The most famous focus of these displays became a stret
Clash Of Civilizations
Clash Of Civilizations
Clash Of Civilizations The Clash of Civilizations suggests that world politics is entering a new phase. It is his hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in the New World will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. Huntington believes that the great divisions amongst humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be in the cultural form. Nation states will still remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will oc