General History Page 9

Communism And Democracy The United States of America is a country that believes in democracy and has unfavorable ties with communist countries. The United States has tried for decades to improve relations with the countries that don’t practice democracy. History shows disagreements between the United States and dictators of these irreverent countries, disagreements that brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. The most recent of these confrontations involved three countries. United States
Communism Downfall The shocking fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe in the late eighties was remarkable for both its rapidity and its scope. The specifics of communism\'s demise varied among nations, but similarities in both the causes and the effects of these revolutions were quite similar. As well, all of the nations involved shared the common goals of implementing democratic systems of government and moving to market economies. In each of these nations, the communist regimes in p
Communism History Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from a lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is that same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthy’s Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the reverse of that. Rather, it is to inform the reader of communism’s migration through time and hopefully assist the
Communism Communism has failed in Europe because of its lack of care for the individual, its corrupt leaders and also because it went against human nature. Two novels that demonstrate this statement are the semi-autobiographical We the Living by Ayn Rand, and Julian Barnes\' The Porcupine. According to Ayn Rand, Communists were pitiless. When Kira, the protagonist of the story, begged for help to save her lover\'s life, the only answer she received from the general was Why - in the face of the
Constitutional Interpretation The question of Constitutional interpretation still has yet to be resolved. Should only the explicit commands of our nation’s Founding Fathers be referenced in courts of law, or can it be justified that an outside body should extrapolate from the specific text of the Constitution to define and defend additional fundamental rights? Further, if this body, namely the Supreme Court, bases its decisions of constitutional relevance not wholly on exact interpretation, the
Cuba\'s Politics While the isle of Cuba was initially discovered on October 27, 1492 during one of Columbus’ first voyages, it wasn’t actually claimed by Spain until the sixteenth century. However, it’s tumultuous beginnings as a Spanish sugar colony provides an insightful backdrop into the very essence of the country’s political and economic unrest. From it’s early revolutionary days to the insurrectional challenge of the Marxist-Leninist theories emerged the totalitarian regime under Fidel Ca
Death Penalty The Costs of the Death Penalty in the United States Capital punishment has existed in the US since colonial times. Since then, more than 13,000 people have been legally executed. Today, there are only twelve states which do not have the death penalty: Alaska, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia and Wisconsin, as well as Washington D.C. The locations of these states are important because they illustrate the lac
Democracy In Athens A Democracy is defined as a government of, by and for the people. Originally, democracy meant rule by the common people. In this sense, and even before the beginning of modern class society, it was very much a class affair. It meant that power should be in the hands of the largest class: the poorest, least educated and the propertyless. As a result, democracy was feared and rejected by the educated, the cultured, and the wealthy. In classical Greece, democracy was seen by the
Diplomacy And Mediation Mediation is a dispute resolution process in which a neutral third party assists the participants to reach a voluntary and informed settlement. Mediation and diplomacy have both been used more and more frequently after the Second World War in order to prevent such a tragedy from reoccurring. Diplomacy can be used in several ways, but not all are considered orthodox although they can contribute to peaceful resolutions of problems. Certain countries like the United States
Diplomatic Immunity A Study of Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges I. Introduction – A Brief History of Diplomacy II. Related Terms in Diplomacy III. United Nations Legislation A. Vienna Conventions 1961 and 1963 B. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976 and Diplomatic Relations Act of 1978 C. General Assembly Resolution IV. U.S. Policy on Diplomatic Immunity V. Abuses of Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges VI. Conclusion VII. Appendices VIII. Bibliography I. INTRODUCTION – A Brief History o
Drug Scandal An August, 1996, series in the San Jose Mercury News by reporter Gary Webb linked the origins of crack cocaine in California to the contras, a guerrilla force backed by the Reagan administration that attacked Nicaragua\'s Sandinista government during the 1980s. Webb\'s series, The Dark Alliance, has been the subject of intense media debate, and has focused attention on a foreign policy drug scandal that leaves many questions unanswered. This electronic briefing book is compiled f
Flag Burning Is it more important to protect the icons of our country, or to ensure the right to extremely offensive expressions? The issue of flag burning asks America just that question: Should America tolerate, or condemn? Flag burning does seem to be the ultimate act of symbolic protest used to express dissension against the American Government. There is simply no questioning the fact that flag burning offends people, but the controversy of flag burning tests the dominion of the First Amendm
Flag Desecration The issue of flag desecration has been and continues to be a highly controversial issue; on the one side there are those who believe that the flag is a unique symbol for our nation which should be preserved at all costs, while on the other are those who believe that flag burning is a form of free speech and that any legislation designed to prevent this form of expression is contrary to the ideals of the First Amendment to our Constitution. Shawn Eichman, as well as the majority
Geopolitics Geopolitics is the applied study of the relationships of geographical space to politics. Geopolitics, therefore, concerned with the reciprocal impact of spatial patterns, features, and structures and political ideas, institutions, and transactions. The term \'Geopolitics\' has originally invented, in 1899, by a Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen and its original meaning is to signify a general concern with geography and politics. However, defining the concept of \'geopolitic
Globalization For many years black people in the United States have struggled for their rights and their piece of the American dream. Now that the world is moving toward a new global era the African American person, worker and human has been left out of this turn in the century and, the system is letting them hang their selves. Globalization has made it so that anyone with the right equipment and knowledge can chat or do business anywhere in the world with just a few clicks of a couple of butto
Gun Control During the first four weeks of our class, we have been reading and discussing numerous essays on the study of culture. Each theorist we have read has questions and problems about the study of culture. They have suggested us solutions to the problems as well. I have decided to closely analyze the essays from Richard Johnson, James Clifford, and Clifford Geertz. In his essay, What is Cultural Studies Anyway? Richard Johnson goes into detail describing critique. Critique involve
Israeli-Arab Antagonism Western historians are re-examining the troubled 20th century history of Israel and Palestine. Previously published revelations of Israel\'s military strength and aggressive operations during the 1948 Israeli-Arab war remained confined to a select group of historians: (Simha Flapan, The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities and Ilian Pappe, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951). Now, the established media is beginning to publish similar information. Washingt
Japan Politics In 1960 Japan was ruled by the conservative LDP. Nabuski Kitchie ran the LDP, a man who had been jailed as a war criminal during the occupation. His comeback can be attributed to his pre-war contacts in big business. Kitchie believed to survive Japan’s economy had to grow. I order to do so Japan\'s businesses had to be disciplined. Kitchie gave directives to the ministry to pass on to the heads of big business. These directives were much like orders from a general. Some Japanese
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly iberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his f
Kennedy And Lincoln Assassinations Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II, once said, The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it. Although this may sound ludicrous, we can see many example of this in the world\'s history. One example would have to be the John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s assassination. For over thirty years the people of the United States were led to believe that a single gunman shot and killed Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. May
Kosovo Conflict The Balkans have been a very unstable region for hundreds of years. The reason for contention is because of ethnic origin and disputes of which race owns which land.. That is the reason for the dispute over Kosovo is because of the same thing. This is a very complicated situation, that I don\'t really know everything about. I just kind of know the basics. Back in the 1500 hundreds, the Serbs conquered the Kosovo area, slowly and gradually over the years the Ethnic Albanians star
Latin America In attempting to establish the current state of development in Latin America, historical chronology serves as the foundation necessary for a comprehensively logical position. Latin American development has evolved in distinct phases, which lead to the present day standings of the politics and peoples throughout the region. The culmination of distinct historical attributes: conquest, colonialism, mercantilism, captalism, industrialism, and globalism, serve as the developmental path
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world stage for more than half of the century and the most successful political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of NATO and its members. The following report
NIOSH The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety an Health Administration (OSHA) were established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act passed by congress in 1970. NIOSH is a part of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and is the only federally funded and controlled division responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. It is important to understand the OSHA and NI
North Korea The United States has been presented a dilemma towards its foreign policy with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea). North Korea’s alleged launch of a new Taepo-Dong I missile on August 31, 1998 has heightened American worries and escalated an already tense situation with North Korea. The United States response towards this new missile, which could possibly be able to reach the edges of both Alaska and Hawaii , will be a factor in its decision on whether or not to
Orientalism Said describes Orientalism as, ...the generic term that I have been employing to describe the Western approach to the Orient; Orientalism is the discipline by which the Orient was (and is) approached systematically, as a topic of learning, discovery and practice. By this, Said is saying because we treated the East like a school subject, we have learned to treat the East as an inferior. Which has developed into something called Orientalism. The poets, authors and statesmen of the n
Politics And Panama Canal During the Spanish-American War the warship Oregon was summoned from the West Coast. The trip took two months to travel 14,000 miles around Cape Horn to the Atlantic. (The American Journey 741) How was the United States supposed to defend it shores if it took ships that long to get between them? The United State had to build a canal through Central America; national security depended on it. The Politics of the Panama Canal are confusing. This confusion includes the bui
Politics Of 1960s As the nineteen fifties turned into the early sixties, the United States remained the same patriotic, harmonious society of the previous decade; often a teen\'s most difficult decision was choosing what color lipstick to wear to the prom. Yet after 1963, a dramatic change slowly developed in the cultural, social, and political beliefs of America, particularly the youth. The death of President Kennedy, the new music, the quest for civil rights, the popularity of mind-altering dr
Presidential Powers In every government there is a ceremonial head of the government who is the symbol of all the people in the nation. As Howard Taft put it, The personal embodiment and representative of their dignity and majesty (McClenaghan, pg. 316). That person is the Chief of State or more commonly known as the President. One of the main factors that cause the presidents to be viewed as a symbol of the American community is the president\'s ceremonial duties which are named in the Consti
Prince Governing countries and states properly has been a difficult task from the beginning of time. In every country there will be people to who are unhappy and will disagree with your rule, causing your system to fail. So, century after century, people have tried new ways to make their politics suffice everyone’s needs. However, the art of politics is a complicated and challenging issue that will always be needed to be dealt with. There have been many ways in which people have preached their
Religion And Politics The influence of religion on humankind can be traced back to the first records of history. Religion has served as a pillar of strength to some and binding chains to others. There are vast amounts of information and anthropological studies revealing the interaction of religion and humankind. However, for the purposes of this paper, the time periods of study will be broken up into three sections. Each section will give a general description of how religion affected the insti
Russia And CIS When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, due to many pressures both internal and external, the ex-soviet satellites were given their independence, much to Russia\'s dismay. A new trend towards sovereignty made it difficult for the largest country in the world to deny it\'s former members the right to separate. However, even with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russia is still heavily involved with the matters of its former soviet members. This then leaves
Second Amendment The United States of America has taken drastic steps in taking away the American peoples God given rights and Constitutional rights. The United States government is supposed to be a government of the people, by the people, for the people. There are very clear signs of a cancerous growth within our government and the citizens of America need to take preventative measures to ensure the freedom for which our founding fathers fought and died. I am speaking of numerous issues that ha
Somalia And US The desire for an organization that would help the international communityavoid future conflicts and the recognized need for a global body that would promote international economic and social cooperation led the powerful states emerging from the rubble of WWII to develop the United Nations. The newly formed United Nations represented an expression of hope for the possibilities of a new global security arrangement and for fostering the social and economic conditions necessary
Sports And Aggressiveness Sport and aggressive behavior, Do sports create aggressive behavior, or simply attract people who are already aggressive? Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around, be it the players themselves, to the parents, coaches, or spectators, they just seem to be an inseparable part of each other. The term violence is defined as physical assault based on total disregard for the well being of self and others, or the intent to injure another pers
Terrorism And Lethality Although the total volume of terrorist incidents world-wide has declined in the 1990s, the proportion of persons killed in terrorist incidents has steadily risen. For example, according to the RAND-St Andrews University Chronology of International Terrorism,5 a record 484 international terrorist incidents were recorded in 1991, the year of the Gulf War, followed by 343 incidents in 1992, 360 in 1993, 353 in 1994, falling to 278 incidents in 1995 (the last calendar year f
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3d PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. As the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, he is probably the most conspicuous champion of political and spiritual freedom in his country\'s history. He voiced the aspirations of the new nation in matchless phrase, and one may doubt if any other American has been so often quoted. As a public official--legislator, diplomat, and executive--he served the province
US Supreme Court The Supreme Court is the highest governing body that is known to us as the people of the United States of America. In the 1998-99 term, the Supreme Court is slated to hear cases on subjects as diverse as business monopolies, labor unions, health insurers, initiative petitions and due process. The justices will also revisit the issue of sexual harassment. The following will just be an overview of how the Supreme Court operates. I will try to point out many things throughout the
War Laws The term laws of war refers to the rules governing the actual conduct of armed conflict. This idea that there actually exists rules that govern war is a difficult concept to understand. The simple act of war in and of itself seems to be in violation of an almost universal law prohibiting one human being from killing another. But during times of war murder of the enemy is allowed, which leads one to the question, if murder is permissible then what possible laws of war could there b
Women In Combat The idea of women in combat is not unusual anymore. Although American women have, for a long time, served as nurses, and as other roles during wartime, they were not officially enrolled in the armed forces until World War I. During this time women served as clerks and secretaries, some being assigned to translation, recruitment, and other tasks which were usually assigned to men (Wekesser, 2). The women were not given rank or benefits, and after the war was over they were not
Woodrow Wilson President Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal representative of the people. No one but the President, he said, seems to be expected ... to look out for the general interests of the country(Internet 1). He developed a program of progressive reform and asserted international leadership in building a new world order. In 1917 he proclaimed American\'s entrance into World War I a crusade to make the world safe for democracy. Wilson had seen the difficulties of war. H
Aggression And Its Intricacies Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must apply a working definition of aggression. Aggressive behavior is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat. (7) David G. Myer
Antisocial Personality The Antisocial Personality is (APD) is a serious disorder that affects many males and cause a great threat to families, friends, and even complete strangers. Most personality disorders may cause an inconvenience to a person“s family and friends, but usually harm themselves more than others. Antisocial Personality Disorder contrasts from other personality disorders because the defining trait is a predatory attitude toward other people (Smith, 1999). They have a chronic ind
Battered Women In 1991, Governor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered women\'s syndrome. A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass. Gen. L. ch. 233 _ 23E (1993), which permits the introduction of evidence of abuse in criminal trials. T
Bipolar Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painful
Bowlby\'s Deprivation In his hypothesis, Bowlby believed that an infant’s failure to attach to a primary caregiver would have long term effects. This essay will attempt to evaluate Bowlby’s deprivation hypothesis. Firstly, the terms ‘attachment’ and ‘deprivation’ will be defined. Following that, a full definition of the hypothesis will be made, and then an attempt will be made to describe and understand the studies and period of history that lead to Bowlby’s ideas and the influence they generat
Brain Sides The human brain is a miraculous organ. It regulates thought, memory, judgment, personal identity, and other aspects of what is commonly called mind. It also regulates aspects of the body including body temperature, blood pressure, and the activity of internal organs to help the body respond to its environment and to maintain the body\'s health. In fact, the brain is considered so central to human well-being and survival that the death of the brain is considered in many parts of the
Brain Sides The article in which I chose to examine is called Right Brain, Left Brain: Fact and Fiction, written by Jerre Levy. In the past fifteen years or so there has been a lot of talk of left brain and right brain people. Levy\'s reason for righting this article was clearly to stop the misconceptions and show the truth about how our brain hemispheres operate. Levy first explores the myth of the left brain and right brain theory. She states that generally people see the left hemisphere of t
Brain Sides The article in which I chose to examine is called Right Brain, Left Brain: Fact and Fiction, written by Jerre Levy. In the past fifteen years or so there has been a lot of talk of left brain and right brain people. Levy\'s reason for righting this article was clearly to stop the misconceptions and show the truth about how our brain hemispheres operate. Levy first explores the myth of the left brain and right brain theory. She states that generally people see the left hemisphere of t
Child Development Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They grow physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. In this paper I will discuss the physical growth and development patterns of an infant all the way through adulthood. Development is the baby\'s increased skill in using various body parts. When dealing with a development of a child there are three basic development rules. First development rule: This rule says that babies develop in the head r