Philosophy Page 6

Morality - Empirical Approach 1. Introduction In this paper I wish to consider the following related questions: (i) Can a system of morality be justified?; (ii) Why should one act morally?; (iii) How can others be persuaded to act morally? Clearly none of these questions is new, and moral philosophers have proposed a variety of responses to them over the centuries without reaching any general agreement. Nevertheless, because these questions are fundamental to any practical application of moral
Nietzsche And Hobbes How are the philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes different on topics of Christianity, Human Nature, and Morality. The philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes’ are radically different, Hobbes’ philosophy is dominated by loyalty to the crown, riddled with references to the Christian scriptures, and a belief that life is nasty, brutish, and short(Leviathan, 133); while Nietzsche’s philosophy was dominated by the pessimistic Schopenhauer, a belief that the human race was a herd,
Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, a unique philosopher had some very interesting ideas about people’s human values and personality types. In this essay I will explain what I like and dislike about his Master Morality & his antithesis to this, Slave Morality. According to Nietzche, all morality is a manifestation of the will to power. The other is driven by the will to power but attempts to deny this. The term master morality refers to all the values of the psychologically strong willed peopl
Of Miracles By Hume In David Hume\'s paper Of Miracles, Hume presents a various number of arguments concerning why people ought not to believe in any miracles. Hume does not think that miracles do not exist it is just that we should not believe in them because they have no rational background. One of his arguments is just by definition miracles are unbelievable. And have no rational means in believing miracles. Another argument is that most miracles tend to come from uncivilized countries and
Philosophy In Religion We live in a society, which relies on fairy tales and mythology to entertain and take us off to a far away place where we can identify with our imagination. The Star Wars trilogy is a classic example of the hero cycle. A young man is brought up believing the light side of the force is his destiny. It has an old warrior, which teaches young Luke an ancient craft that has been used for centuries to battle evil. Luke is told about his father and how he was a great Jedi Knigh
Philosophy Of Language Throughout its history mankind has wondered about his place in the universe. In fact, second only to the existence of God, this subject is the most frequent topic of philosophical analysis. However, these two questions are very similar, to the point that in some philosophical analyses the questions are synonymous. In these particular philosophies, God takes the form of the universe itself or, more accurately, the structure and function of the universe. In any case, rather
Philosophy Of Medicine The book, the Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is an objective look into the world of two different cultures and their belief systems. The viewpoints of the Hmong and of the American doctors represent Hmong culture and the root of Western medicine. The book takes into account how two cultures, rather, two completely opposite worlds are collided and their impact on each other (Fadiman 1997). The book uncovers the underlying meaning of how different We
Philosophy Of Mind In this paper I plan to show that Searle is correct in claiming that his Chinese Room Analogy shows that any Turing machine simulation of human understanding of a linguistic phenomenon fails to possess any real understanding. First I will explain the Chinese Room Analogy and how it is compared to a Turing machine. I will then show that the machine can not literally be said to understand. A Turing machine has a infinite number of internal states, but always begins a computatio
Philosophy Of Religion Philosophy of Religion, by David Elton Trueblood is an attempt to fathom not religion as a whole, but the thought processes that are the basis of modern religious thought. The book makes no attempt to explain any individual religious preferences or motifs, only to gauge the reasons for religion in its entirety. While Trueblood doesn\'t pass judgment on other religions, his personal beliefs are apparent. He is a Protestant Christian, and has been writing books on religion s
Philosophy Role Philosophy is an all-important aspect of our lives. It is philosophy that we turn to when have the need to seek out a guiding principle for our lives. Therefore, philosophy holds a prominent place in society and in the world. Basically, everyone is a philosopher, but it takes the creative genius and reasoning of brilliant thinkers to bring about world-shattering concepts. Nevertheless, the common man also ruminates about his life and his unique existence to try to find the meani
Plato On Justice In my opinion, Socrates’ analysis of the human natural is very true as it ultimately brings us his definition of Justice. I agree with his theory of the human natural but not his social-political theory. But In order to understand Plato’s theory of human natural and his social-political theory. However, we must examine each one of them closely. Plato believed that no one is self – sufficient enough to live individually. Human beings are not created equally; some of us are born
Plato On Justice Plato (428-347 BC) The Greek philosopher Plato was among the most important and creative thinkers of the ancient world. His work set forth most of the important problems and concepts of Western philosophy, psychology, logic, and politics, and his influence has remained profound from ancient to modern times. Plato was born in Athens in 428 BC. Both his parents were of distinguished Athenian families, and his stepfather, an associate of Pericles, was an active participant in the p
Plato\'s Euthyphro One of the most interesting and influential thinkers of all time was Socrates, whose dedication to careful reasoning helped form the basis for philosophy. Socrates applied logical tricks in the pursuit for the truth. Consequently, his willingness to call everything into question and his determination to accept nothing less than an adequate account of the nature of things made him one of the first people to utilize critical philosophy. Although he was well known for his philos
Plato\'s Ideal City Socrates\' ideal city is described through Plato in his work The Republic, some questions pondered through the text could be; How is this an ideal city, and is justice in the city relative to that of the human soul? I believe Socrates found the true meaning of justice in the larger atmosphere of the city and applied that concept to the human soul. Socrates describes his idea of an ideal city as one that has all the necessary parts to function and to show that justice is
Plato\'s Phaedo Plato’s Phaedo is a dialog between Phaedo, Cebes, and Simmias depicting Socrates explanation as to why death should not be feared by a true philosopher. For if a person truly applies oneself in the right way to philosophy, as the pursuit of ultimate truth, they are preparing themselves for the very act of dying. Plato, through Socrates, bases his proof on the immortality of the soul, and it being the origin of our intellect. Several steps must be taken for the soul to be proven
Political Philosophy Political philosophy’s are the theories and ideas of those who believe that they have an answer to the questions that politics raise in society. The questions that these political philosophers set out to answer range from describing what the state of nature is to what type of regimes are necessary to tame and organize the nature of man. The ideas that they come up with are not all that original. Plato, an early political philosopher and student of Socrates, set out to come u
Politics Of Plato And Aristotle To compare the political theories of two great philosophers of politics is to first examine each theory in depth. Plato is regarded by many experts as the first writer of political philosophy, and Aristotle is recognized as the first political scientist. These two men were great thinkers. They each had ideas of how to improve existing societies during their individual lifetimes. It is necessary to look at several areas of each theory to seek the difference in eac
Rousseau Ideas Jean Jacques Rousseau was a very famous french philosopher. He wrote many popular stories and operas during his life. He was a very smart man who was born into a disturbed family. Jean Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva on June 28th, in 1712. Rousseau’s mother died while giving birth to him. His father was a very violent tempered man and he paid little attention to Jean’s training. His father would eventually desert him. The fact that his father deserted him gave Jean a passion
Rousseau\'s Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a fascinating individual whose unorthodox ideas and passionate prose caused a flurry of interest in 18th century France. Rousseau\'s greatest work were published in 1762 -The Social Contract. Rousseau society itself is an implicit agreement to live together for the good of everyone with individual equality and freedom. However, people have enslaved themselves by giving over their power to governments which are not truly sovereign because the
Sartre\'s Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre . . . the name is one of the most popular in modern philosophy. But who was he? What did he write and what were his works about? What was his role with regard to Existentialism? What is Existentialism, really? What life influences affected the person as whom he became famous? How would Sartre assess various social topics that we face today? What are the problems with Sartre\'s view of Existentialism and existence in general? These are the questions addr
Sartre\'s Existentialism The word philosophy comes from Greek and literally means love of wisdom. The Merriam- Webster dictionary defines philosophy as a critical study of fundamental beliefs and the grounds for them. Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. However, existentialism is a philosophical movement of the 19th and 20th century that centers on the analysis of individual existence and the given situation of the
Science And Philosophy In my analysis of the philosophy of science, I will attempt to give an analysis of Aristotle’s demonstration and scientific knowledge starting points and how they apply to his theory, his definition in sciences, and scientific enquires of the various questions posted as well as his ideals of explanation, which gives clear ideal of his theory points in his premises. Aristotle starting points of sciences are definitions, existence proposition and general logical truth, whic
Scientific Though Forming The arguments about these rival ontological and epistemological views cannot be safely left or judged without first looking more closely at the complex relationship between the general analytical interests of philosophers and the more specific intellectual concerns of working scientists themselves. For the degree to which each view about the reality of scientific entities and facts can carry conviction depends substantially on what branches of science are at issue. As t
Self Of Damasio And Descartes 1. Explain Damasio’s view as to what Descartes’ error is, and why he thinks Descartes is in error? How do Descartes and Damasio differ as to what theself is? Damasio and Descartes differ greatly as to what the self is all about. They have different answers to the philosophical question of what makes up the self, and determines who a person is. A person’s identity is more than just the body they both agree, but have different reasons why. Descartes is also kno
Sense Of Life Sense Of Life Sisyphus is the absurd hero. This man, sentenced to ceaselessly rolling a rock to the top of a mountain and then watching its descent, is the essence of the absurd hero according to Camus. In retelling the Myth of Sisyphus, Camus is able to create an extremely powerful image with imaginative force, which sums up in an emotional sense the body of the discussion. We are told that Sisyphus is the absurd hero as much through his passions as through his torture. His scorn
Socrates And Crito The dialogue Crito, by Plato, recounts the last days of Socrates, immediately before his execution was going to take place in Athens. In the dialogue, Socrates’ friend, Crito, proposes that Socrates escape from prison. Socrates considers this proposal, trying to decide if escaping would be just andmorally justified. Eventually, Socrates concludes that the act is considered unjust and morally unjustified. Socrates decides to accept his death penalty and execution. Socr
Socrate\'s Apology \' The Apology is Socrates\' defense at his trial. As the dialogue begins, Socrates notes that his accusers have cautioned the jury against Socrates\'eloquence, according to Socrates, the difference between him and his accusers is that Socrates speaks the truth. Socrates distinguished two groups of accusers: the earlier and the later accusers. The earlier group is the hardest to defend against, since they do not appear in court. He is all so accused of being a Sophist: that h
Socrates The life of the Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 BC) marks such a critical point in Western thought that standard histories divide Greek philosophy into pre-Socratic and post-Socratic periods. Socrates left no writings of his own, and his work has inspired almost as many different interpretations as there have been interpreters. He remains one of the most important and one of the most enigmatic figures in Western philosophy. As a young man Socrates became fascinated with the new sci
Socratic Worldview Of the philosophers I have studied, Socrates stands out to me from all the rest. Although I would be the first to confess that I have never put forth the time nor the effort necessary to consider myself a philosopher (at least not in the sense that I imagine most would consider to be the credentials of a philosopher), my philosophy about life is most closely aligned with what I understand Socrates philosophical beliefs to be. Although there are some distinct differences in wh
St. Augustine\'s Confessions In the Confessions, by Saint Augustine, Augustine addressed himself articulately and passionately to the persistent questions that stirred the minds and hearts of men since time began. The Confessions tells a story in the form of a long conversion with God. Through this conversion to Catholic Christianity, Augustine encounters many aspects of love. These forms of love help guide him towards an ultimate relationship with God. His restless heart finally finds peace an
State Of Nature To trigger off any philosophy on what should be the characteristics of the state we must first imagine living in a state of nature (living with the lack of a state). Since we cannot trace back to any time that we’ve been without government, we must imagine what it would be like in a state of nature. What are people like with the absence of a state? there have been many views in answering this question, therefore there have been many differences in views for what theideal state
Stranger Of Camus In The Stranger, as in all Camus’ works, Camus’ views on freedom and death – one dependent on the other – are major themes. For Camus, freedom arises in awareness of one’s life, the every-moment life, an intense glorious life that needs no redeeming, no regrets, no tears. Death is unjustifiable, absurd; it is but a reintegration into the cosmos for a free man. Until a person reaches this awareness, life, like death, is absurd, and indeed, generically, life remains absurd, th
Survival Of The Fittest Charles Darwin felt strongly that observations made on large scale explorations such as his voyage on the Beagle showed conclusively that many clearly different organisms, animals as well as plants, were related to one another buy some unknown law. In other words Darwin was trying to prove that evolution existed. However Darwin does outline how a purely natural process of selection could produce similar effects, and thus explain the development of new species without ref
Time Philosophy The temporal world in which we live encompasses everything we know. All of our knowledge comes from a trust of five and a half billion people that have no idea where they came from, and no idea where they are headed; a world of blind leading blind. A vital component of this reality exists in a form that is neither provable, nor ideal. This supposedly perfect form of measurement, known as time, runs our lives until we fall so far behind that our bodies finally give out and die. T
Transcendentalism During the late 1800s and early 1900s, a new era was developing in American society. The United States was an idealistic nation with separate beliefs and lifestyles. One of the most intriguing lifestyles introduced during this time was transcendentalism. Many authors, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathanial Hawthorne, Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, developed this idea and tried to make people understand the meaning behind this new way of lfe. Through his extensive writin
Violence And Nonviolence Violence is a problem that we as humans, deal with everyday. Today, it seems that we deal with it in just about every aspect of our lives. From children’s cartoons to the nightly news, we are witnesses to its power and harm. A highly debated argument for the causes of violence are surrounding our homes as well as our government. No matter the causes of violence or for that fact aggressors, we have a personal responsibility must be taken for violent actions. We are given
Violence Philosophy Violence in the basis upon which we live. Wherever we go there is some form or act of violence. Most people have lost the concept of right and wrong. The line that once stood between them is now blurred. People find that they do no harm when they commit an act that’s wrong. Violence is seen in many forms today that there was ever before. Media has a large part in broadcasting violence. Violence is due to some of these issues such as easy access to weapons, the people who com
Zen Buddhism Buddhism\'s trek through history, politics, and America Zen, or Zenno (as it is known by the Japanese word from which it derives), is the most common form of Buddhism practiced in the world today. All types of people from intellectuals to celebrities refer to themselves as Buddhist, but despite its popularity today in America, it has had a long history throughout the world. Here none think of wealth or fame, All talk of right and wrong is quelled. In Autumn I rake the leaf-banked
Atomic Theory The Greek concept of atomos: the atom Around 440 BC leucippus of Miletus originated the atom concept. He and his pupil, Democritus of abdera refined it for future use. Their atomic idea has five major points. All original writings of leucippus and Democritus are lost. The only sources we have for there atomistic ideas are inquotations from other writers. Democritus was known as the laughing philosopher because he enjoyed life so much. At this time Greek philosophy was about 150
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and
Metamorphosis Metamorphosis: In biology, striking change of form or structure in an individual after hatching or birth. Hormones called molting and juvenile hormones, which are not species specific, apparently regulate the changes. These physical changes as well as those involving growth and differentiation are accompanied by alterations of the organism\'s physiology, biochemistry, and behavior. From animal development. Metamorphosis, the transformation of the larva into an adult, is a more or
Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian calendar which was in use then; the date was January 4, 1643, according to the GRegorian calendar in use today0, at Woolsthorpe near Grantham in Lincolnshire. His widowed mother remarried when he was three years old, leaving him in the care of his feeble grandmother. Eventually his mother was persuaded to send him to grammar school in Grantham. Later, in the summer of 1661, he was sent to Trinity College, a
Wheel Invention The invention of the wheel was a miraculous invention, along with the airplane, and the telephone. All the inventions that have ever been created weren’t just something that was already drawn out on a piece of paper for the inventors. They had to think. They had to imagine the masterpiece before it was even a physical object. These people weren’t just thinkers or inventors. These people Thought Outside the Box. The writer Sarah Susanka, the author of The Not So Big House, on
Beat Movement The Beat Movement in modern literature has become an important period in the history of literature and society in America. Incorporating influences such as jazz, art, literature, philosophy and religion, the beat writers created a new and prophetic vision of modern life and changed the way a generation of people sees the world. That generation is mow aging and its representative voices are becoming lost to eternity, but the message is alive and well. The Beats have forever alter
Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson\'s world was her father\'s home and garden in a small New England town. She lived most of her life within this private world. Her romantic visions and emotional intensity kept her from making all but a few friends. Because of this life of solitude, she was able to focus on her world more sharply than other authors of her time were. Her poems, carefully tied in packets, were discovered only after she had died. They reveal an unusual awareness of herself and her wor
Eugene O\'Neil Through poverty and fame, An artist or nothing (Miller p6), was the motto of a man named Eugene O’Neill, who wrote from his soul in an attempt to find salvation. In the year 1888, the Barrett House hotel in Time Square, New York saw the birth of a man who would be called the greatest American playwright. His father James, was an actor, and was famous across the United Sates for his role in the popular play Monte Cristo. Eugene’s mother was a beautiful woman named Ellen who was
Anarchism And Liberalism Contemporary liberal and anarchist philosophy are both two very different ways of trying to see what would be the best way to run society. While discussing these two ideologies I will try to show how both, in their purist sense, are not able work in today\'s society effectively. Contemporary liberals are involved in every day politics but through over regulation and dependence on government they loose their chances of running a reliable democracy. Anarchist have very go
Communism Communism is a concept or system of society in which the community owns the major resources and means of production rather than by individuals. (Beers 670) Which means if that theory was true, everything should be shared between people. That also suggests that society wouldn’t need a government because this society would be without rulers. However, communism also involves the abolition of private property by a revolutionary movement. In the early 19th century the idea of a communist s
Communist China The future of communism in China is unknown, as the world economy becomes more international. Communism has been in China since 1949 and is still present in the country’s activities. Presently China is undergoing incredible economic growth and promises to be a dominant power early in the next century. China’s social tradition has come under heavy pressure from forces of modernization generated in a large part by the sustained contact with the West that began in the middle of the
Democracy As Myth Each of us is aware that change is everywhere we look. No segment of society is exempt. We as the public are dealing with the advent of continuous and ever increasing change. Change in technology, change in resource availability, change in national demographics, change in workforce diversity, change in simply every facet of the organizational environment and context in which public institutions must operate. Change, as the saying goes, has truly become the only constant. The c