Psychology Page 3

Child Development
Child Development
Child Development Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They grow physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. In this paper I will discuss the physical growth and development patterns of an infant all the way through adulthood. Development is the baby\'s increased skill in using various body parts. When dealing with a development of a child there are three basic development rules. First development rule: This rule says that babies develop in the head r
Cognition
Cognition
Cognition What are some other key biases that influence judgment? Judgment seems to be influenced by a variety of things each have their own implication on judgment. Overconfidence serves as a bias on judgment. Fischhoff, Slovic, and Lichtenstein, in 1997, tested this idea. The participants were given the question Absinthe is a: A) liquer or B) a precious stone. The subjects were to choose the correct answer, and state the probability of being correct. It was found that when the subjects were
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance How do human beings make decisions? What triggers a person to take action at any given point? These are allquestions that I will attempt to answer with my theoretical research into Leon Festingerís theory of cognitive dissonance, as well as many of the other related theories. We often do not realize the psychological events that take place in our everyday lives. It is important to take notice of theories, such as the balance theory, the congruency theory and the cognitive d
Color Effects
Color Effects
Color Effects Color in the environment and how persons perceive can greatly affect their productivity and mood. Each person has a different abilities of being able to screen out various stimulus that is around them. Low screeners have a difficult time ignoring overpowering stimulus in their environment while high screeners need to perceive a great amount of stimulus to work to the best of their ability. Mood is affected by color, when a person is in a red room to long they can become agitated a
Common Sense
Common Sense
Common Sense When someone says that psychology is a process of using simply common sense, this is far fetched. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. (Myers,1998) Psychology is filled with hundreds of different theories and has been using studies to observe peoples behavior for years. Some parts of psychology are common sense, but every thing in life has some part of common sense in it. There are six major perspectives that the psychologists use when trying to figure out wh
Conformity
Conformity
Conformity Use some psychological studies of conformity to discuss reasons for conforming. According to Leon Mann, conformity means Ďyielding to group pressuresí. Everyone is a member of one group or another and everyone expects members of these groups to behave in certain ways. If you are a member of an identifiable group you are expected to behave appropriately to it. If you donít confirm and behave appropriately you are likely to be rejected by the group. Like stereotypes, conforming and exp
Counseling And Psychotherapy
Counseling And Psychotherapy
Counseling And Psychotherapy Counseling v. psychotherapy is there a difference between the two? This paper will attempt to prove that there are several differences between counseling and psychotherapy. While counseling and psychotherapy have several different elements in each, the following information will also attempt to show the reader that there are some areas where the two overlap. At times this was a confusing topic to research. A fine line distinguishes the two topics and one must look h
Creativity Study
Creativity Study
Creativity Study Creativity is one of the most difficult mental functions to study. While a concrete definition remains illusive, it has been established as a multifaceted phenomenon (Kitto, Lok & Rudowicz, 1994). One facet that is an important component of creative potential is divergent thinking (Vosburg, 1998), this is the ability to generate several alternative solutions to a problem. The mental processing involved occurs in such a way as to activate as many mental representations as possib
Cult's Activities
Cult's Activities
Cult\'s Activities Cult activity has been on the rise over the past few decades. With it there has been an increase in the fear surrounding it. From this fear, society has learned much about cults, how they get members and what to look out for as far as cult recruiters go. Society as a whole has also learned what can be done to deal with cults. Cult activity and the fear that surrounds it Throughout the last couple of decades more and more stories of illegal cult activity or murders by satanic
Depression And Relationships
Depression And Relationships
Depression And Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of our population and many aspects of an individual\'s mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pietromonaco, and Kenneth Jaffe. This
Depression
Depression
Depression Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tends to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves. Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide. Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in youths aged 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1995). Despite this increased suicide rate, depression in this age group is greatly underdiagnosed a
Development Of Children
Development Of Children
Development Of Children Infants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life. Their development is not only physical, it is also mental, emotionally, and social. These developments are the blue prints for further development in life. During development, there are three basic developmental laws. The first one is the babyís development in the head region, followed by the upper body, followed by the trunk portion, and lastly the legs and feet. For example, a baby can hol
Deviant
Deviant
Deviant Behavior A person would be considered to be acting defiantly in society if they are violating what the significant social norm in that particular culture is. What causes humans to act certain ways is a disputed topic among researchers for some time now. There are three types of researchers that have tried to answer this question. There is the psychological answer, biological answer, and the sociological answer. With all of the studies that have been performed, no one group has come up w
Dostoevsky
Dostoevsky
Dostoevsky Thesis: Dostoevsky\'s manic and depressive episodes aided in his ability to properly illustrate the workings of the human mind, through his writing. Outline: I. Introduction II. What is Manic Depression and Depression? III. Other Writers with Mental Illnesses IV. Dostoevsky\'s Life V. Analysis of Notes VI. Conclusion Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, author of several acclaimed books-including Notes From Underground-a semi-autobiographical story, introduced a new form of writing,
Dream Interpretation
Dream Interpretation
Dream Interpretation When we sleep we do much more than just rest our weary bones; we tap into our subconscious mind (Ullman and Zimmerman 1979). The subconscious has much to offer about oneself. The average human being spends one third of their life in sleep and during each sleep approximently two hours is spent dreaming (Ullman and Zimmerman 1979). These dreams are important because they are the voice of our subconscious. Dreams and theories on dreams go as far back as 2000 BC in Egypt. One
Dreams
Dreams
Dreams For my independent study topic I researched dreams. There are many different approaches philosophers have taken to explain dreams and what they mean. I will go through a couple of them. Many of you may be asking yourself why do I dream?, there are several answers to that question. The first in the physiological set. We dream in order to exercise our brains. When youíre awake, messages are constantly speeding among all your billions of brain cells to keep you moving and thinking and dig
Dyslexia
Dyslexia
Dyslexia Whether we graduate from highschool or college we all hope to find a challenging career that will propel us forward in today\'s society. For those suffering from dyslexia this only adds to the frustration and fears associated with seeking employment. Many adults with dyslexia or other forms of learning disabilities never disclose their disability in interviews or once employed for fear of being discriminated against. Several investigators have noted, however, that many persons with lea
Eating
Eating
Eating Disorders Colleges and universities around the country are reporting an increased prevalence of eating problems among young female students. Difficulties include obsession with food, starvation dieting, severe weight loss, obesity, and compulsive binge eating, often followed by self-induced vomiting (Hesse-Biber, 1989, p. 71). What are the reasons for eating disorders among college-aged women? It is the purpose of this paper to discuss this question and give an overview of several possib
EGO And Personality
EGO And Personality
EGO And Personality The ego, a word that is arbitrarily used by mean, has a quite distinct and significant meaning. Ego development is an aspect of psychology that has been discussed by a number of authors and psychologist. Many different authors have concluded a variety of theories behind the ego and its many stages and its effects upon oneís personality. According to Zimbardo (1992) Freudís theory showed that personality differences arise from the different ways in which people deal with thei
Ellis And Glasser
Ellis And Glasser
Ellis And Glasser Albert Ellis and William Glasser have been in the mainstream of psychological society for over four decades. Both have contributed greatly to modern psychotherapy. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) of Albert Ellis and the Reality therapy of William Glasser have endured the trendy world of psychology and in fact as they are based in ancient philosophy (Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius), they also remain the foundation for brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and ecc
Euthanasia
Euthanasia
Euthanasia There are numerous controversial issues that currently affect the evolving field of psychology. Unsolved issues on human experimentation, abortion, genetic testing, animal rights are a few examples of themes that arouse conflict and contention. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted suicide is yet another controversial issue that has particular relevance to the field of psychology because of the apparent moral and ethical dilemmas involved. Euthanasia, by definition a happy death, impli
Flashbulb Memories
Flashbulb Memories
Flashbulb Memories About one year ago I remember hearing about some very awful news. My grandmother had died suddenly. In my mind it was impossible that this could happen. No one who was close to me had ever died before. It was even harder to believe because my grandmother had been much more healthy than her husband. She still worked as a babysitter during the days, and that is where she died. She was taking care of a four year old child and had a stroke while sitting in a chair. The little boy
Freud On Development
Freud On Development
Freud On Development Freud really did make some major contributions to the field of psychology. He was the first one to suggest that psychological problems might have their roots in how children were treated. Freud believed that most of our personality is formed by early childhood, much of it so early that we donít even have conscious memories. For example, people who were toilet-trained strictly and at an early age grow up to be intolerant of mess, disorder and anything that doesnít go by the
Freud
Freud
Freud Sigmund Freud was the first of six children to be born into his middle class, Jewish family. His father was a wool merchant, and was the provider for the family. From the time Freud was a child, he pondered theories in math, science, and philosophy, but in his teens, he took a deep interest in what he later called psychoanalysis. He wanted to discover how a personís mind works, so he began to explore the conscious and unconscious parts of oneís psyche. Freudís parents and siblings were di
Gerontology
Gerontology
Gerontology The reaction time for subject with increase complexity is the focus of this study. The ten respondents were randomly selected on the campus of University Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Ten subjects reaction time was evaluated with a computer simulation program using one, two, or four choice trails, which lasted forty to sixty minutes. The data were analyzed using test and ANOVA. The test showed no significance as far as practice effects were concerned, but inferences can be made. Also the A
Head Start
Head Start
Head Start The highest rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are found in low-income welfare families. The Head Start program is for thecontinued enhancement of services for poor children ages zero to five, and their families. The parents of the children in the Head Start program are rarely examined. Head Start instead focuses on the academic performance of the involved children. The article, Preventing Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: Strengthening P
Herman Ebbinghaus
Herman Ebbinghaus
Herman Ebbinghaus During the late 1800\'s a new science was emerging in Europe. Psychology\'s roots can be traced back to Germany and a man by the name of William Wunt. Following Wunt other psychologists began emerging in different fields. Of these pioneers Herman Ebbinghaus was one, and his field of study was memory. He performed the first experiments in 1885 in Germany and the following is a background on the man and his field. Herman Ebbinghaus was born in 1850 in Germany and died there in 1
Hierarchy Of Needs
Hierarchy Of Needs
Hierarchy Of Needs The hierarchy of needs and the hygiene theory are alike but are also different. I shall go through each one of these theories and inform the reader of these differences and similarities. Each one in its own right is correct but now that we near the millenium, we should rethink or atleast re-read these theories and see if they are, in fact, still alive today. Abraham Maslow is known for establishing the theory of a hierarchy of needs, writing that human beings are motivated by
Intellectual Development Of Children
Intellectual Development Of Children
Intellectual Development Of Children In two separate issues of Time magazine, the intellectual development of infants and preschoolers was analyzed with contrasting viewpoints regarding the development of their brains and the views regarding how best to encourage the cognitive abilities of these young children. In the earlier issue, dated February 3, 1997, the special report consisting of two articles titled Fertile Minds and The Day-Care Dilemma the theories of Jean Piagetís cognitive-de
Intelligence Testing
Intelligence Testing
Intelligence Testing In reviewing the text, I found the definition of intelligence testing to be very simple; testing used to measure intelligence. Two definitions found on an Internet site at dictionary.com are: (a) A standardized test used to establish an intelligence level rating by measuring a subject\'s ability to form concepts, solve problems, acquire information, reason, and perform other intellectual operations. (b) A psychometric test of intelligence; they used to think that intelligen
Tests And Intelligence
Tests And Intelligence
IQ Tests And Intelligence The task of trying to quantify a personís intelligence has been a goal of psychologists since before the beginning of this century. The Binet-Simon scales were first proposed in 1905 in Paris, France and various sorts of tests have been evolving ever since. One of the important questions that always comes up regarding these tools is what are the tests really measuring? Are they measuring a personís intelligence? Their ability to perform well on standardized tests? Or j
Jealousy In Gender
Jealousy In Gender
Jealousy In Gender The Influence of Jealousy in Men and Women in response to Infidelity Jealousy can be defined as \' a fear and rage reaction fitted to protect, maintain, and prolong the intimate association of love\' (Davis 1948, cited in Buunk et al 1996) Sexual jealousy has frequently been observed as a powerfully strong emotion, however, research on this topic has been limited as most emotion researchers consider jealousy as a combination of the more basic, central primary emotions. Evolut
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget This paper revolves around developmental psychologist Jean Piaget and his work. While swaying from the personal to the professional sides of the Swiss psychologist, the research touches on key influences that inspired young Piaget to become such a driven and well respected psychologist. However, the most extensive part of this paper is the explanation of his cognitive development theory and how it evolved. The three main pieces to Piaget\'s puzzle of cognitive development that are d
Leadership Theories
Leadership Theories
Leadership Theories This essay will approach types of power such as; to utilize and influence others, to either reward or punish, to confirm by role of an organization, and to identify with a leader such as rock or film personality. This essay will cover six categories of power and these interlink with each other and brings a better focus on theories of power. The functions of leadership are many and varied, depending upon the basic problem with a group must deal with, and the type of leadershi
Memory
Memory
Memory Improvement Memory is defined as the accuracy and ease with which a person can retain and recall past experiences (Webster\'s Dictionary, pg. 611). It is often thought of as a capacity, such as a cup, that could be full or empty. A more common comparison is one to a computer. Some minds, like computers, can have more software, being able to save and recall more experiences, information, and memories than others can. And like a computer, minds can be upgraded. This is not done with a simp
Memory Study
Memory Study
Memory Study The study of human memory and in particular the attempts to distinguish between different types of memory have benn investigated for the last century. Philosophy, psychiatry and psychologh have all contributed to this study. Korsakoff, Freud and Ebbinghaus are among the early contributers. Although their observations were not always methodological as strict as with current research they did play a vital role. One critisim of the early work was that there were few attempts to develo
Modern Psychology
Modern Psychology
Modern Psychology Everyday, this chant is heard by millions of people watching the now infamous talk show, Jerry Springer. Even though just a few years ago, most people regarded these shows as ridiculous, now this chant is recognized and adored by many people in society. The most parsimonious explanation for this is that the shows now have more interesting and captivating topics. The premise of most episodes of these shows has changed greatly over the past few years; The topics have moved awa
Mozart Effect
Mozart Effect
Mozart Effect Although it is only in recent times that scientists have started to document the effects of music, the qualities of music were understood even in earliest times. Evidence suggests that dance and song preceded speech, which means that music is the original language of humans. Researcher\'s have found that about two-thirds of the inner ear\'s cilia resonate only at the higher frequencies that are commonly found in music (3,000 - 20,000 Hz). This seems to indicate that primitive human
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator One of the most enduring typological classifications was devised by Jung and has served as the foundation for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Anastasi, 1997). The Myers-Briggs (MBTI) designates one\'s personality type, based upon a classification scheme, which consists of four basic scales and two types within each scale. Thus, there are sixteen possible Myers-Briggs personality types. The scheme is based upon the intuitions of Carl Jung, whose gifted insight reveal
Narcissism
Narcissism
Narcissism The so-called narcissistic personality disorder is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize him or her. The narcissist conjures in us images of the mythological character Narcissus who
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Are you the type of person who has a phobia of germs, dirt, or contaminated bodily fluids? Is the only way to feel safe and pure is for you to cleanse yourself countless times a day? Or maybe you\'re the type of person who has to check things twice, three times or more. Perhaps you\'re the type of person who has to do everything twice, or by a fixed number. Maybe you are the type of person who must have everything neatly placed, and if misplaced at all you throw a
Pain Theories
Pain Theories
Pain Theories Pain has been experienced by everyone regardless of age, gender or economic status. Pain is usually described as unfavorable experience that has a lasting emotional and disabling influence on the individual. Theories that explain and assist in understanding what pain is, how it originates and why we feel it are the Specificity theory, Pattern Theory and Gate theory. In this paper I will attempt to demonstrate my understanding of the theories and also will be critically analyzing t
Parapsychology
Parapsychology
Parapsychology In the past centuries people have been becoming more and more curious about the unexplainable things all around them. They are always asking why does this happen? and is that really true? Not until recently have scientists and others actually tried to find out for themselves. Many of their searches evolved around the paranormal. Soon they called their search parapsychology Parapsychology can be defined as the study of apparent new means of communication, or exchange of influence
Personality
Personality
Personality Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Ego, Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic and Interactionist. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, what interests me the most in this subject is behaviorism. For me different types of behaviors are amazing to learn about, mainly the behavior therapy, collective behavior, crime
Phrenology
Phrenology
Phrenology Phrenology is basically the study of personality through the study of the shape of the skull. The basis of this theory is that the brain conforms to the shape of the head and its contours. This pseudoscience says that because we have isolated where different parts of personality come from we can tell how dominant this trait would be in a person\'s life by the size of the piece of the brain. We have since proven that this theory is not true. Franz Joseph Gall is considered to be the f
Piaget And Vygotsky
Piaget And Vygotsky
Piaget And Vygotsky Everyday life is characterized by conscious purpose. From reaching for food to designing an experiment, our actions are directed at goals. This purpose reveals itself partly in our conscious awareness and partly in the organization of our thoughts and actions. Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. Much past and present theory has emphasized the parallels between the articulated prepositional structure
Piaget
Piaget
Piaget Freud And Erikson The field of psychology has grown to be respected as a science. Objectivity and the scientific method are both part of the psychologist\'s mode of operation. However, even the greatest of psychologists can only theorize about what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes are not part of psychology. Everything is relative and open to speculation. Theorists give us their views or ideas about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many different areas o
Piaget Stage Theory
Piaget Stage Theory
Piaget Stage Theory The project is based on Piaget\'s stage theory of cognitive development Prediction Based on Piaget\'s theory, children during the pre - operational stage have acquired the ability to stand apart and view themselves from another person\'s perspective. They are able to describe themselves as different from other children by listing their unique characteristics, especially the fact that their names are different. They develop a more complex understanding of themselves, such as
Predicting School Violence
Predicting School Violence
Predicting School Violence This is an overview of the types of constructs which one might look at to determine if a student is in a high risk category for acting out in a violent manner, and the types of tests which would measure those constructs. We will look at some of these predictors, the constructs they attempt to measure, and how this might aid in predicting future behavior. There have been a lot of studies, interventions, programs, and models designed to reduce or predict violence among
Pregnancy And Alcohol
Pregnancy And Alcohol
Pregnancy And Alcohol January 1989 the results of a study conducted by Ann Pytkowicz Streissguth were published in the Journal of Developmental Psychology. The study investigated the relationship of maternal use of drugs, alcohol and/or cigarettes during pregnancy on the IQ of her child at the age of four years. Newsweek and Scientific News also print articles later that year reporting the effects of maternal use of alcohol and drugs on the infant. They also looked at the effects of cigarette s