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Existentialism
Existentialism
Existentialism Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Jaspers write of many important issues concerning our existence and society in general, but the one that interests me the most is the belief in the ignorance and stupidity of the majority of the human race. We are so narrow-minded, so asleep, so afraid of exploring ourselves and what is beyond this all-encompassing story we have created and in which we live (and ironically hate). These four philosophers all seem to see the big picture. Some
Existentialist Movement
Existentialist Movement
Existentialist Movement Existentialism is a philosophical movement that developed in continental Europe during the 1800’s and 1900’s. Most of the members are interested in the nature of existence or being, by which they usually mean human existence. Although the philosophers generally considered to be existentialists often disagree with each other and sometimes even resent being classified together, they have been grouped together because they share many problems, interests, and ideas. The most
God Existence
God Existence
God Existence In my life on this planet I have come to question many things that many take on as blind faith. We all know that someday we will ‘physically’ die, Yet, we continuously deny the forces working inside ourselves which want to search out the true outcome of what may or may not come after death. It’s far easier for humanity to accept that they will go on to a safe haven and be forgiven for all, rather than to question the existence of a super omnipotent being. Fortunately, there are so
God Existence
God Existence
God Existence In David Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Cleanthes’ argument from design is successful in supporting the idea that the universe has an ordered arrangement and pattern. This argument is not sound in its ability to prove the existence of the Christian God. However, Cleanthes does present a sound case for order in the universe, which can be seen as an aspect of one’s faith in a Supreme Creator. In the argument from design, Cleanthes is attempting to discover and defend
Henri Bergson
Henri Bergson
Henri Bergson Henri Bergson was a modern philosopher who merged empiricism with a bit of rationalism to become part of a new empiricism that held room for intuition and movement with a flux through time. He essentially refused science’s claim to explain the universe in mechanical conditions; instead he considered life an unending creation, a matter of change and time unlike something static. In Henri Bergson’s (originally?) dualistic realm there existed the distinctive modes of consciousness or
Justin Lieber
Justin Lieber
Justin Lieber I read how to build a person by Justin Lieber. Justin Lieber is a professor at the University of Houston, whom also writes science fiction. This selection, which was taken from his novel Beyond Rejection, is fictional and is based in the future. The story is set in the year 2112 in a Houston hospital. In this hospital they are brains on one person into the body of another. The story starts with the hospital giving a class on how they are attempting to transplant a mind into a huma
Knowledge Limits
Knowledge Limits
Knowledge Limits Over history, the human race has striven for truth and understanding logic. When trying to understand this, a person approaches the philosophical question, What can I know? With this philosophical question comes the epic battle between whether or not a person should base an opinion on empicism or rationalism. I believe that I need to be shown facts and logic to understand something, however I also rely on my senses to strengthen my self. First of all empicism is when a person
Locke Berkeley And Hume
Locke Berkeley And Hume
Locke Berkeley And Hume Enlightenment began with an unparalleled confidence in human reason. The new science\'s success in making clear the natural world through Locke, Berkeley, and Hume affected the efforts of philosophy in two ways. The first is by locating the basis of human knowledge in the human mind and its encounter with the physical world. Second is by directing philosophy\'s attention to an analysis of the mind that was capable of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for en
Machiavelli
Machiavelli
Machiavelli Machiavelli and the President Lately, the president of the United States Bill Clinton, has pursued some policies that have been very unpopular not only with the general public but the electorate as well. Besides the whole Monica ordeal he feels that these unpopular policies will effect the results of the next election. The presidential advisors have formulated countless plans but no plan has seemed to work. One idea would be to leave the unpopular policies as they are because of the
Marxist Ideology
Marxist Ideology
Marxist Ideology Capital is not personal, but social power and product. (Karl Marx) Karl Marx, perhaps one of the most influential philosophers in history, is widely remembered for the revolutionizing ideologies he presented in the Communist Manifesto. Marx was certainly a man of great intelligence and vision. His many visions about capitalistic development are constantly reflected in today’s society. Job alienation is certainly rampant. Most individuals have a TGIF; Monday sucks mentality.
Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Metaphysics Bringing metaphysical mind set into my life has been a tremendously rewarding experience. It made me realize that most often humans have propensity for getting by something with the least possible expenditure of thought because thinking appears to be hard and burdensome to them. However, tackling something with a minimum of thought is like driving in twilight with no lights on. According to Heidegger, it is a downright hindrance to pure objective employment of one\'s intellect, wh
Modern Science And Materialism
Modern Science And Materialism
Modern Science And Materialism What is real? This question has puzzled many what is really real or what is reality. Reality as I shall explain is one that is according to materialism and proven by science. Materialism is defined, as the metaphysical view holding that matter alone is real. This is what Hugh Elliot proves in his argument Modern Science and Materialism. By use of his argument I will answer the questions of what is real, what humans need to know, if it is possible to know what is r
Montesquieu's Definition Of Law
Montesquieu's Definition Of Law
Montesquieu\'s Definition Of Law The following was completed for a Political Thought and Theory Class in my Senior Year of Highschool..my grade was an 85 Montesquieu: Definition of Law Into the first three chapters of Book 1, The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu condensed a lifetime of thinking, not so much on law as what law is, (after all, the work by Montesquieu is entitled The Spirit of Laws, not The Laws of the Spirit). The definition of law provided to us by Montesquieu can be most clearly ide
Morality - Empirical Approach
Morality - Empirical Approach
Morality - Empirical Approach 1. Introduction In this paper I wish to consider the following related questions: (i) Can a system of morality be justified?; (ii) Why should one act morally?; (iii) How can others be persuaded to act morally? Clearly none of these questions is new, and moral philosophers have proposed a variety of responses to them over the centuries without reaching any general agreement. Nevertheless, because these questions are fundamental to any practical application of moral
Nietzsche And Hobbes
Nietzsche And Hobbes
Nietzsche And Hobbes How are the philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes different on topics of Christianity, Human Nature, and Morality. The philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes’ are radically different, Hobbes’ philosophy is dominated by loyalty to the crown, riddled with references to the Christian scriptures, and a belief that life is nasty, brutish, and short(Leviathan, 133); while Nietzsche’s philosophy was dominated by the pessimistic Schopenhauer, a belief that the human race was a herd,
Nietzsche
Nietzsche
Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche, a unique philosopher had some very interesting ideas about people’s human values and personality types. In this essay I will explain what I like and dislike about his Master Morality & his antithesis to this, Slave Morality. According to Nietzche, all morality is a manifestation of the will to power. The other is driven by the will to power but attempts to deny this. The term master morality refers to all the values of the psychologically strong willed peopl
Philosophy Of Language
Philosophy Of Language
Philosophy Of Language Throughout its history mankind has wondered about his place in the universe. In fact, second only to the existence of God, this subject is the most frequent topic of philosophical analysis. However, these two questions are very similar, to the point that in some philosophical analyses the questions are synonymous. In these particular philosophies, God takes the form of the universe itself or, more accurately, the structure and function of the universe. In any case, rather
Philosophy Of Religion
Philosophy Of Religion
Philosophy Of Religion Philosophy of Religion, by David Elton Trueblood is an attempt to fathom not religion as a whole, but the thought processes that are the basis of modern religious thought. The book makes no attempt to explain any individual religious preferences or motifs, only to gauge the reasons for religion in its entirety. While Trueblood doesn\'t pass judgment on other religions, his personal beliefs are apparent. He is a Protestant Christian, and has been writing books on religion s
Plato's Divided Line
Plato's Divided Line
Plato\'s Divided Line Plato’s ‘Divided Line’ is a model indicating not only levels of knowledge, but basically levels of everything. It is divided into four levels and two sides. The left side consists of ways we know, become aware of, and perceive things, while the right side consists of the objects of knowledge, awareness, and perception. The bottom half includes those things in the physical realm and the top half includes those things in the spiritual and intellectual realm. The highest poin
Plato's Meno
Plato's Meno
Plato\'s Meno Throughout history, philosophers have sought to understand the nature of true knowledge and how to achieve it. Most believe that true knowledge is acquired empirically, and not latent in our minds from birth. In Plato’s Meno, Socrates argues in favour of the pre-natal existence of knowledge, the opposite of this proposal: that knowledge is essentially latent, and is brought to light through questioning. The erisitic paradox, which stems from this view of knowledge, states that if
Plato's Theory Of Knowledge
Plato's Theory Of Knowledge
Plato\'s Theory Of Knowledge Plato\'s Theory of Knowledge is very interesting. He expresses this theory with three approaches: his allegory of The Cave, his metaphor of the Divided Line and his doctrine The Forms. Each theory is interconnected; one could not be without the other. Here we will explore how one relates to the other. In The Cave, Plato describes a vision of shackled prisoners seated in a dark cave facing the wall. Chained also by their necks, the prisoners can only look forward and
Politics Of Plato And Aristotle
Politics Of Plato And Aristotle
Politics Of Plato And Aristotle To compare the political theories of two great philosophers of politics is to first examine each theory in depth. Plato is regarded by many experts as the first writer of political philosophy, and Aristotle is recognized as the first political scientist. These two men were great thinkers. They each had ideas of how to improve existing societies during their individual lifetimes. It is necessary to look at several areas of each theory to seek the difference in eac
Prince And Discourses
Prince And Discourses
Prince And Discourses Although many of the same ideas are contained in both The Prince and the Discourses, these two works differ significantly in emphasis because they discuss two different types of political systems. The Prince, is one of the first examinations of politics and science from a purely scientific and rational perspective. In The Prince, Machiavelli was concerned with a principality, a state in which one ruler or a small elite governs a mass of subjects who have no active politica
Racialism
Racialism
Racialism Appiah addresses the issues of racialism, intrinsic racism, and extrensic racism in his article entitled RACISMS. However, after analyzing Appiah’s views on racism and its different forms, his views on the theoretical validity of racialism and extrinsic racism are seriously doubted. Appiah defines racialism as the view that there are essentail characteristics that allow us to classify people into distinct races, each of which shares certain traits and tendencies. On this topic, Appi
Reincarnation
Reincarnation
Reincarnation Reincarnation has been the talk for thousands of years. The gospels say when the Christian Master (Jesus) asked Whom say the people that I am?, One answered Jesus was John the Baptist returned. It was well known by then John the Baptist had been decapitated long before. Others said He was regarded as the reincarnation either of Elias or of Jerimias. They both had been dead for centuries. This indicates how popular the subject was then, also among the Romans, Greeks, Egyptian
Sartre's Existentialism
Sartre's Existentialism
Sartre\'s Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre . . . the name is one of the most popular in modern philosophy. But who was he? What did he write and what were his works about? What was his role with regard to Existentialism? What is Existentialism, really? What life influences affected the person as whom he became famous? How would Sartre assess various social topics that we face today? What are the problems with Sartre\'s view of Existentialism and existence in general? These are the questions addr
Science And Philosophy
Science And Philosophy
Science And Philosophy In my analysis of the philosophy of science, I will attempt to give an analysis of Aristotle’s demonstration and scientific knowledge starting points and how they apply to his theory, his definition in sciences, and scientific enquires of the various questions posted as well as his ideals of explanation, which gives clear ideal of his theory points in his premises. Aristotle starting points of sciences are definitions, existence proposition and general logical truth, whic
Science And Will
Science And Will
Science And Will Schopenhauer had an understanding of the Will, which has to separate parts. The Will to Life and Human Will. The Will to Life, was the over all striving that every animal did on a daily basis, the striving for the will to live. Schopenhauer, believed that the nature of life was suffering and that this suffering was manifested in the will to live. However, this will, in humans, was also manifested by Human Will, or striving for that life, such as studying, reading, etc. This hum
Scientific Though Forming
Scientific Though Forming
Scientific Though Forming The arguments about these rival ontological and epistemological views cannot be safely left or judged without first looking more closely at the complex relationship between the general analytical interests of philosophers and the more specific intellectual concerns of working scientists themselves. For the degree to which each view about the reality of scientific entities and facts can carry conviction depends substantially on what branches of science are at issue. As t
Self Destruction Suicide
Self Destruction Suicide
Self Destruction Suicide A Self- Destruction Suicide is the act or an instance of intentionally killing oneself According to Emile Durkheim, suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result (44). Suicide is a rarely ever a spur of the moment thing. The Susceptibility to suicide is lowest among those who have strong community ties. Involvement in church, synagogue or temple may
Socrates
Socrates
Socrates The life of the Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 BC) marks such a critical point in Western thought that standard histories divide Greek philosophy into pre-Socratic and post-Socratic periods. Socrates left no writings of his own, and his work has inspired almost as many different interpretations as there have been interpreters. He remains one of the most important and one of the most enigmatic figures in Western philosophy. As a young man Socrates became fascinated with the new sci
Sophist's Philosophers
Sophist's Philosophers
Sophist\'s Philosophers 1.What beliefs did the Sophists challenge? They didn\'t believe that gods and goddesses influenced behavior or absolute moral and legal standards. But that man is the measure of all things and truth is different to each individual. 2.What was Socrates accused of doing? What did he say in defense? He was accused of corrupting the young and not worshipping the gods worshipped by the state. He said A man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of
Soul And God
Soul And God
Soul And God Being raised in a Catholic family, I have always been told that my body contains a soul. I have often wondered where my soul is and how it functions. Being asked by my friends questions about the soul, I could not answer because I never really knew myself, so I looked to the writings of the church. According the Catechism of the Catholic Church, written by Pope John Paul II, the soul is not just part of the body, it is the body. In Sacred Scripture the term soul often refers to
State Of Nature
State Of Nature
State Of Nature To trigger off any philosophy on what should be the characteristics of the state we must first imagine living in a state of nature (living with the lack of a state). Since we cannot trace back to any time that we’ve been without government, we must imagine what it would be like in a state of nature. What are people like with the absence of a state? there have been many views in answering this question, therefore there have been many differences in views for what theideal state
Suicide
Suicide
Suicide Living to die, or is it dying to live. Suicide, the intentional act of killing oneself. Britain abolished punishment for attempted suicide in 1961, and by the early 1990\'s only two US states still listed suicide as a crime (Columbia Encyclopedia). The Japanese have long held to practice called Hara-Kiri, another form of suicide. Most religions look down on this practice because it goes against their core values. As we examine the reasoning behind suicide, can we make a decision of wh
Survival Of The Fittest
Survival Of The Fittest
Survival Of The Fittest Charles Darwin felt strongly that observations made on large scale explorations such as his voyage on the Beagle showed conclusively that many clearly different organisms, animals as well as plants, were related to one another buy some unknown law. In other words Darwin was trying to prove that evolution existed. However Darwin does outline how a purely natural process of selection could produce similar effects, and thus explain the development of new species without ref
Three Tests Of Truth
Three Tests Of Truth
Three Tests Of Truth In a court of law expert witnesses are required to demonstrate the truth beyond reasonable doubt. This is difficult for a \'knower\', such as a historian, to be able to assert this at the witness stand. Let\'s say that a young couple has just been married. The young couple stays together for a couple of months before they break up. When the two individually write reports on why the divorce is necessary, the judge is confused about the disparity between them. Thus, he call
Atomic Theory
Atomic Theory
Atomic Theory The Greek concept of atomos: the atom Around 440 BC leucippus of Miletus originated the atom concept. He and his pupil, Democritus of abdera refined it for future use. Their atomic idea has five major points. All original writings of leucippus and Democritus are lost. The only sources we have for there atomistic ideas are inquotations from other writers. Democritus was known as the laughing philosopher because he enjoyed life so much. At this time Greek philosophy was about 150
Golf Physics
Golf Physics
Golf Physics As anyone who has played a round of golf will attest to, the sport is based around many fundamental principals of physics. These basic laws are involved with every aspect of the game from how a player swings the club to how the ball moves through the air on its way toward the pin. It is the challenge that physics presents to the golfer that has allowed the game, and equipment used, to develop so drastically over the past one hundred years. The first golf balls used were called feat
History Of Physics
History Of Physics
History Of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and
Hydroponics
Hydroponics
Hydroponics Have you ever thought of growing plants without soil? A science known as hydroponics will allow you to do just this. Hydroponics systems have been used since the time of the ancient Babylonians who used them to used them to grow their famous hanging gardens. Today, all around the world, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants are grown using hydroponics. The word hydroponics was derived from the Greek words hydros, meaning water, and ponos, meaning labor, or literally, wa
Hydrothermal Vents
Hydrothermal Vents
Hydrothermal Vents Imagine being on the ocean floor. You are in total darkness and in unbearable pressure. You would think that in this freezing environment there is no life, but there is. Eight years ago something was discovered that no one could even imagine. It was a source of life called a hydrothermal vent. A hydrothermal vent is a hot spring found at depths from three to four thousand meters in areas along mid-ocean ridges. Plate movements occurring on the earth’s crust create vents. They
Lightning Phenomenon
Lightning Phenomenon
Lightning Phenomenon Lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs more often than we think it does. That streaking flash, followed by a loud rumbling noise, that makes your knees buckle is very dangerous because of its unpredictable striking force. Being struck by lightning can be deadly, so the more precautions you take ahead of time, the safer you are. Lightning not only affects us, it also has a great impact on our man-made structures and of course, our natural surroundings. According to Pr
Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian calendar which was in use then; the date was January 4, 1643, according to the GRegorian calendar in use today0, at Woolsthorpe near Grantham in Lincolnshire. His widowed mother remarried when he was three years old, leaving him in the care of his feeble grandmother. Eventually his mother was persuaded to send him to grammar school in Grantham. Later, in the summer of 1661, he was sent to Trinity College, a
Dickinson's Humor
Dickinson's Humor
Dickinson\'s Humor While much of Emily Dickinson\'s poetry has been described as sad or morose, the poetess did use humor and irony in many of her poems. This essay will address the humor and/ or irony found in five of Dickinson\'s poems: Faith is a Fine Invention, I\'m Nobody! Who are you?, Some keep the Sabbath Going to Church and Success Is Counted Sweetest. The attempt will be made to show how Dickinson used humor and / or irony for the dual purposes of comic relief and to stress an idea
Rappaccini's Daughter
Rappaccini's Daughter
Rappaccini\'s Daughter In the literal sense, Nathaniel Hawthorn\'s Rappaccini\'s Daughter is the story about the rivalry between two scientists that ultimately causes the destruction of an innocent young woman. However, when the story is examined on a symbolic level, the reader sees that Rappaccini\'s Daughter is an allegorical reenactment of the original fall from innocence and purity in the Garden of Eden. Rappaccini\'s garden sets the stage of this allegory, while the characters of the story
William Blake
William Blake
William Blake William Blake, who lived in the latter half of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth, was a profoundly stirring poet who was, in large part, responsible for bringing about the Romantic movement in poetry; was able to achieve remarkable results with the simplest means; and was one of several poets of the time who restored rich musicality to the language (Appelbaum v). His research and introspection into the human mind and soul has resulted in his being cal
China US Relations
China US Relations
China US Relations China, for most of its 3500 years of history, China led the world in agriculture, crafts, and science. It fell behind in the 19th century when the Industrial Revolution gave the West clear superiority in military and economic affairs. In the first half of the 20th century, China continued to suffer from major famines, civil unrest, military defeat, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under Mao Tse Tung established a dictatorship that, while ensuring aut
Chinese Democracy Movements
Chinese Democracy Movements
Chinese Democracy Movements In 1978, stimulated by the opening of China to the West and also by the reversal of verdicts against the 1976 Tiananmen protesters (These demonstrations against the gang of four had been condemned as counter-revolutionary at the time but were now declared a revolutionary act), thousands of Chinese began to put their thoughts into words, their words onto paper and their paper onto walls to be read by passers by. The most famous focus of these displays became a stret
Communism
Communism
Communism Communism is a concept or system of society in which the community owns the major resources and means of production rather than by individuals. (Beers 670) Which means if that theory was true, everything should be shared between people. That also suggests that society wouldn’t need a government because this society would be without rulers. However, communism also involves the abolition of private property by a revolutionary movement. In the early 19th century the idea of a communist s